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Lecture16 - ChE 210 Meeting 16 Outline(F&R Sections...

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Unformatted text preview: ChE 210: Meeting 16 February 18, 2011 Outline (F&R Sections 5.3-5.5) Homework Due Friday 02/25/2011 - Tc and Pc 5.12, 5.16, 5.25, 5.30, 5.69, 5.74 - Non-ideal Equations of State - Compressibility Factor - Law of Corresponding States - Mixtures of Nonideal Gases Critical Temperature (Tc) and Pressure (PC) - All gases are nonideal at low T (< O C) and high P (> 1 atm) - Using the ideal gas law could give errors in V by a factor of 2 — 3 - Critical temperature and pressure help determine if use of the ideal gas law is appropriate I Determination of TC and PC: LowP ‘ Fixed T All vapor 2 Low P ' Fixed T Vapor & liquid rfizf‘fiss‘mfi) {svékgfmg } W 1 25.9 i £33329 1:933:35; 997.9 :2 ms t 1.9:} mm 9525.? 3 2.31.4 i 35.3; mm was a 349.3 163: 113.3 5331}: ~ w :5: 373.? 21’s.: 3,633 6 3?:135 1 2523.3. m5 313.5 33-?4415 Ne canderzsaiirm warm! 1/6 ChE 210: Meeting 16 February 18, 2011 Gas vs. Vapor: - Vapor — exists at T < TC and can be condensed to a liquid isothermally - Gas — exists at T > T0 and P low enough that p is closer to a vapor (~1 g/L) than a liquid (~1000 g/L) Nonideal Eguations of State A Virial: fl=1 + E RT RT B = EEO + (DB1) PC Van der Waals: P = ART — v—{b‘ 1V2 2/6 ChE 210: Meeting 16 February 18, 2011 RT da Soave-Redlich-Kwong: P = A - A A V—b V V+ b 5 Com pressibility Factor *for an ideal gas 2 = 1 **z for several components tabulated in Perry’s Handbook Law of Corresponding States Values of certain physical properties (including 2) depend on the proximity of a gas to a critical state ‘ " To use compressibility factor equation of state for unknown V: 1.) Look up TC and Pc 2.) Calculate Tr and Pr 3.) Look up 2 on generalized compressibility chart A 4.) Calculate V 3/6 ChE 210: Meeting 16 February 18, 2011 To use compressibility factor equation of state for unknown P or T: 1.) Look up Tc and PC 2.) Calculate Tr or Pr A ideal 3.) Calculate Vr = A V PC RTC 4.) Look up 2 on generalized compressibility chart 5.) Calculate P or T Example 5.4-2 One hundred gram-moles of nitrogen is contained in a 5-liter vessel at - 20.6 C. Estimate the pressure of the cylinder. Given: 1; .m‘. x rm 1‘ -- u ._ .. .;_ a: r- Find: Physical Properties: l l 33 f at It ,‘u “ A2> ; Emmy Solution: 4/6 ChE 210: Meeting 16 February 18, 2011 :12 W Fir? KT {A3 b n s» 290 Gmtprwsimmy {21mm flatmates! gamma: fl, _/‘», ' "w e if: N : _ t x! V 15,: \l ;. \ \ :\ '1 t 1 3 ’ \ ,' \ V ‘ ‘ w 4 x a x 1. \ ‘\ lkar l)k‘ ~ - y 1 1 ‘ "Hi 1.» '2: , ‘_. 3 lg 5/6 ChE 210: Meeting 16 February 18, 2011 Mixtures of Nonideal Gases Kay's Rule estimates pseudocritical properties *works best for mixtures of nonpolar compounds with Tc’s and P53 within a factor of 2 6/6 ...
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