Chapter 4 powerpoint - The Carbohydrates Sugars Starches...

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5/24/2010 1 The Carbohydrates: Sugars, Starches, and Fibers Whitney & Rolfes – Understanding Nutrition, 12 th Edition Chapter 4 Introduction Brain Glucose Muscles Whitney & Rolfes – Understanding Nutrition, 12 th Edition Glucose Glycogen Fat Sources of carbohydrates “Fattening” – mistaken thinking Chemist’s View of Carbohydrates Carbohydrate family Atoms and chemical bonds Monosaccharides Whitney & Rolfes – Understanding Nutrition, 12 th Edition Chemical shorthand Glucose, fructose, galactose Disaccharides Maltose, sucrose, lactose Polysaccharides
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5/24/2010 2 Chemist’s View of Carbohydrates Whitney & Rolfes – Understanding Nutrition, 12 th Edition Chemist’s View of Carbohydrates Monosaccharides – three Same numbers and kinds of atoms Differing sweetness Whitney & Rolfes – Understanding Nutrition, 12 th Edition Glucose – blood sugar Part of every disaccharide Fructose Sweetest of the sugars Galactose Only in a few foods Chemist’s View of Carbohydrates Disaccharides Pairs of three monosaccharides Maltose – two glucose units Whitney & Rolfes – Understanding Nutrition, 12 th Edition Sucrose – glucose and fructose Lactose – galactose and glucose Condensation Links two monosaccharides together Hydrolysis Breaks a disaccharide in two
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5/24/2010 3 Chemist’s View of Carbohydrates Whitney & Rolfes – Understanding Nutrition, 12 th Edition Chemist’s View of Carbohydrates Polysaccharides Glycogen Storage form of energy in the body Whitney & Rolfes – Understanding Nutrition, 12 th Edition Glucose units Starch Storage form of energy in plants Glucose units Chemist’s View of Carbohydrates Polysaccharides Fibers Differ from starches Whitney & Rolfes – Understanding Nutrition, 12 th Edition Soluble fibers – benefits Insoluble fibers – benefits Functional fibers Resistant starches Phytic acid
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5/24/2010 4 Carbohydrate Digestion Ultimate goal Glucose for absorption and use Hydrolysis via enzymes Whitney & Rolfes – Understanding Nutrition, 12 th Edition Mouth Amylase Stomach Stomach acid & protein-digesting enzymes Role of fiber Carbohydrate Digestion Small intestine Most carbohydrate digestion