Chapter 4, nutrition

Chapter 4, nutrition - Chapter 4-The Carbohydrates, Sugars,...

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Chapter 4-The Carbohydrates, Sugars, Starches, and Fibers Chemistry of Carbohydrates 1) Glucose -Provides nearly all the energy the human brain uses daily 2) Glycogen -Fuel muscles -Storage form of energy ^2 Carbohydrates -provide about half of all energy muscles and other body tissues use. The other half comes from fat. -Compounds composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen arranged as monosaccharide or multiples of monosaccharide. Most, but not all, carbohydrates have a ratio of one carbon molecule to one water molecule (CH2O)n. -Plant foods -Whole grains -Vegetables -Legumes -Fruits -Milk - Monosaccharide-single sugars (simple carbs) (C6 H12 O6). Same # & kinds of atoms, different arrangements-sweetness. -Don’t need to be broken down - Glucose (mild sweet flavor) -blood sugar - Fructose (intensely sweet) -Fruits -Honey -Corn syrup -Soft drinks -Cereal -Desserts - Galactose (hardly sweet at all) - Disaccharides-sugars composed of pairs of monosaccharide (simple carbs) -Only need to be broken once - Maltose (glucose + glucose) -Occur when starches break down-carbohydrate digestion -Fermentation-Alcohol -Constituent-Barley - Sucrose (glucose + fructose) -Sweet-natural in fruits, vegetables, & grains -Table sugar-refined from sugarcane & sugar beets-granulated -refined-brown, white, and powdered sugar - Lactose (glucose + galactose)
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-Principle carbohydrate of milk -1/2 energy provided in milk Put together and taken apart by: Condensation-links two monosaccharide together -Hydroxyl +Hydrogen=H20 Hydrolysis-break disaccharide in 2 -Commonly occur in digestion -Split H2O-OH & H - Polysaccharide-large molecules composed of chains of monosaccharide (complex carbs) (starches and fibers) -Starch-chief food source for energy of all the world’s people -Contain many glucose units - Glycogen -Storage form of energy in the body -Found not in foods-limited meats and some plants -Stores glucose for future use -Hormonal message “release energy”
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This note was uploaded on 07/31/2011 for the course NUTRITION 101 taught by Professor Zahora during the Spring '11 term at Gardner-Webb.

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Chapter 4, nutrition - Chapter 4-The Carbohydrates, Sugars,...

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