Cardio pulmonary ABSTRACT

Cardio pulmonary ABSTRACT - ABSTRACT We conducted various...

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ABSTRACT We conducted various experiments to test the efficiency of the enzyme catalase, extracted from Beta vulgaris . Efficiency was tested by measuring how long it took for a fiber disc soaked in catalase to rise to the top of a beaker filled with a hydrogen peroxide substrate. The efficiency of the enzyme was tested in the presence of detergent, and this proved to be highly detrimental to enzymatic activity – no reaction occurred. We then tested the effects of different concentrations of catalase on the rate of the reaction, and found that, as expected, the rate of the reaction increased as the concentration of catalase increased. Finally, we tested the effect of varied levels of pH on the enzyme’s activity, expecting reaction rate to peak at a pH between 6-8, and found that the enzyme had optimal efficiency in a slightly basic environment, with a pH of 9.9. Aside from the pH experiment, all results were fairly consistent with our hypotheses. The purpose of a catalyst in a cell is to speed up a reaction, and enzymes are, in essence, cell-made catalysts. Enzymes are able to increase the rate of a reaction by lowering the activation energy required for the reaction to proceed. The enzyme recognizes the reagents of the reactions, called the substrates , and is able to attach on to them in what is known as a “lock and key” fit, ensuring that any given enzyme can only work with its specific substrate. The high level of specificity of an enzyme can be attributed to the specific R-groups that are attached to the ends of the amino acids that make up the proteins that make up the enzymes. Enzymes are designed to work at an optimal level only within the range of temperatures and pHs that are normally found in an organism’s body. Once the temperature or pH of an enzymes environment are changed significantly, the enzyme will denature, and because of this loss of proper structure, the enzyme ceases to have any effect. Other substances that can influence enzymatic activity are called inhibitors . These substances can bind to the enzymes, either at the active site itself (in this case they are
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known as competitive inhibitors ), or at another site ( non - competitive inhibitors ), and prevent the enzyme from being able to bind to it’s substrates. Catalase
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Cardio pulmonary ABSTRACT - ABSTRACT We conducted various...

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