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10/10/2010 1 PAUL A. GULIG, PH.D. INTRODUCTION TO BACTERIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS OCTOBER 12-20 Office - R1-250, 392-0050 Lab R1-144, 392-0682 email: [email protected] Communication is key: Check Courses Announcements page for emails and corrections Three sections: Introduction to Bacteriology Pathogenesis of Infectious Diseases Caused by Bacteria Parasitology/Mycology Note Assignments: Virtual Microbiology Lab Clinical Microbiology Conferences BUGS cases A ten-year old boy experiences a sudden onset of extremely sore throat, pain on swallowing, fever of 103 ˚ F, swollen lymph nodes in his neck, and general malaise. If his throat looked like this . .. what is the diagnosis? If his throat looked like this . .. what is the diagnosis? Why is his throat so inflamed? What is the mechanism of damage? Are there any possible serious consequences to this disease? Why, why not? What nonspecific defenses were available to fight this infection? Why were they not effective? Will specific immunity eventually clear this infection? Why, why not? Will he be immune from the disease in the future? Why, why not? Can this infection be treated with antibiotics? Why, why not? What determines your choice of antibiotics to try? Do you have to worry about the organism being resistant or becoming resistant to the antibiotics? Why or why not?
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2 Are the boy’s siblings and classmates at risk for getting this disease from him? STAY TUNED FOR THE ANSWERS TO THESE AND MANY MORE QUESTIONS! “The fundamental differences in the structure and physiology of bacteria as infectious agents vs. us as hosts are the bases for most of the damaging effects of infectious disease and our ability to fight infectious disease with antibiotics.” For example, the small size and simple internal structure enable the rapid growth of bacteria to contaminate food or overcome host defenses. BACTERIA (prokaryotes) VS. EUKARYOTES Cel Structure: Bacteria Eukaryotic Organization Unicel ular Unicel ular/ Multicel ular Cel Membrane: transport, motility, transport oxidative phosphorylation, DNA replication Endocytosis/Exocytosis - + Intracel ular Membranes: - + Nucleus, Golgi, Mitochondria, Endoplasmic Reticulum Cytoskeletal: Microfilaments - + Microtubules - + Cel wal Peptidoglycan - Genetics: Chromosomes 1 (2: Vibrios, Neisseria) >1 Topology Circular Linear Segregation Cel membrane Mitotic spindle Transcription/ coupled in Transcription - nucleus Translation cytoplasm Translation - cytoplasm mRNA capping, - + poly-A Introns (-) + Cistron structure Polycistronic Monocistronic Ribosome 70S (50S + 30S) 80S (60S + 40S) Genetic Transformation, Meiosis, Zygote fusion Exchange Transduction, Conjugation Bacterial structure Small (1-8 microns) Shapes (important for identification and making diagnosis) Others ( vibrios, filamentous, coccobacilli ) Envelope structure is unique to prokaryotes Cell wall rigid structure surrounding the cell membrane Functions : prevent osmotic lysis protect cell from external stresses (host)
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