Chap29_PHY2049 - Chapter 29 Electromagnetic Induction -...

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Chapter 29 – Electromagnetic Induction - Induction Experiments - Faraday’s Law - Lenz’s Law - Motional Electromotive Force - Induced Electric Fields - Eddy Currents - Displacement Current and Maxwell’s Equations - Superconductivity
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1. Induction Experiments (Faraday / Henry) - If the magnetic flux through a circuit changes, an emf and a current are induced. - A time-varying magnetic field can act as source of electric field. - A time-varying electric field can act as source of magnetic field. Maxwell - An induced current (and emf ) is generated when: (a) we move a magnet around a coil, (b) move a second coil toward/away another coil, (c) change the current in the second coil by opening/closing a switch.
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2. Faraday’s Law - Magnetically induced emfs are always the result of the action of non- electrostatic forces. The electric fields caused by those forces are E n (non- Coulomb, non conservative). = = Φ dA B A d B B ϕ cos a a Magnetic flux: cos = = Φ A B A B B a a If B is uniform over a flat area A:
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Faraday’s Law of Induction: - The induced emf in a closed loop equals the negative of the time rate of change of the magnetic flux through the loop. dt d B Φ - = ε - Increasing flux b ε < 0 ; Decreasing flux b ε > 0 - Direction: curl fingers of right hand around A, if ε > 0 is in same direction of fingers (counter-clockwise), if ε < 0 contrary direction (clockwise). - Only a change in the flux through a circuit (not flux itself) can induce emf. If flux is constant b no induced emf.
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- If the loop is a conductor, an induced current results from emf. This current produces an additional magnetic field through loop. From right hand rule, that field is opposite in direction to the increasing field produced by electromagnet. dt d N B Φ - = ε Coil: N = number of turns Ex: 29.4 - Generator I: a simple alternator
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Exs: 29.6, 29.7 - Generator III: the slide wire generator
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3. Lenz’s Law The direction of any magnetic induction effect is such as to oppose the cause of the effect. - Alternative method for determining the direction of induced current or emf. -The “cause” can be changing the flux through a stationary circuit due to varying B, changing flux due to motion of conductors, or both.
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- If the flux in an stationary circuit changes, the induced current sets up a magnetic field opposite to the original field if original B increases , but in the same direction as original B if B decreases . - The induced current opposes the change in the flux through a circuit (not the flux itself). - If the change in flux is due to the motion of a conductor, the direction of the induced current in the moving conductor is such that the direction of the magnetic force on the conductor is opposite in direction to its motion (e.g. slide-wire generator). The induced current tries to preserve the “status quo” by opposing motion or a change of flux.
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This note was uploaded on 07/30/2011 for the course PHY 2049 taught by Professor Saha during the Spring '08 term at University of Central Florida.

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Chap29_PHY2049 - Chapter 29 Electromagnetic Induction -...

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