phy2048_ch2 - Physics for Scientists and Engineers I PHY...

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Physics for Scientists and Engineers I Dr. Beatriz Roldán Cuenya University of Central Florida, Physics Department, Orlando, FL PHY 2048, Section 4
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Chapter 1 - Introduction I. General II. International System of Units III. Conversion of units IV. Dimensional Analysis V. Problem Solving Strategies
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I. Objectives of Physics - Find the limited number of fundamental laws that govern natural phenomena. - Use these laws to develop theories that can predict the results of future experiments. -Express the laws in the language of mathematics. - Physics is divided into six major areas: 1. Classical Mechanics (PHY2048) 2. Relativity 3. Thermodynamics 4. Electromagnetism (PHY2049) 5. Optics (PHY2049) 6. Quantum Mechanics
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II. International System of Units K Kelvin Temperature W = J/s Watt Power J = Nm Joule Energy Pa = N/m 2 Pascal Pressure N Newton Force m/s 2 Acceleration m/s Speed kg kilogram Mass s second Time m meter Length UNIT SYMBOL UNIT NAME QUANTITY f femto 10 -15 p pico 10 -12 n nano 10 -9 μ micro 10 -6 m milli 10 -3 c centi 10 -2 D deci 10 -1 da deka 10 1 h hecto 10 2 k kilo 10 3 M mega 10 6 G giga 10 9 T tera 10 12 P peta 10 15 ABBREVIATION PREFIX POWER
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Example: 316 feet/h Æ m/s III. Conversion of units Chain-link conversion method: The original data are multiplied successively by conversion factors written as unity. Units can be treated like algebraic quantities that can cancel each other out. IV. Dimensional Analysis Dimension of a quantity: indicates the type of quantity it is; length [L], mass [M], time [T] Example: x=x 0 +v 0 t+at 2 /2 s m feet m s h h feet / 027 . 0 281 . 3 1 3600 1 316 = [] [] [ ] [] [ ] [ ] [] [] [] L L L T T L T T L L L + + = + + = 2 2 Dimensional consistency: both sides of the equation must have the same dimensions. Note: There are no dimensions for the constant (1/2)
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Significant figure Æ one that is reliably known. Zeros may or may not be significant: - Those used to position the decimal point are not significant. - To remove ambiguity, use scientific notation. Ex: 2.56 m/s has 3 significant figures, 2 decimal places. 0.000256 m/s has 3 significant figures and 6 decimal places. 10.0 m has 3 significant figures. 1500 m is ambiguous Æ 1.5 x 10 3 (2 figures), 1.50 x 10 3 (3 fig.) Order of magnitude Æ the power of 10 that applies.
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V. Problem solving tactics • Explain the problem with your own words. • Make a good picture describing the problem. • Write down the given data with their units. Convert all data into S.I. system. • Identify the unknowns. • Find the connections between the unknowns and the data. • Write the physical equations that can be applied to the problem. • Solve those equations. • Always include units for every quantity. Carry the units through the entire calculation. • Check if the values obtained are reasonable Æ order of magnitude and units.
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Chapter 2 - Motion along a straight line I. Position and displacement II. Velocity III. Acceleration IV. Motion in one dimension with constant acceleration V. Free fall MECHANICS Æ Kinematics Particle: point-like object that has a mass but infinitesimal size.
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I. Position and displacement
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This note was uploaded on 07/30/2011 for the course PHY 2049 taught by Professor Saha during the Spring '08 term at University of Central Florida.

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phy2048_ch2 - Physics for Scientists and Engineers I PHY...

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