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ch2 - Motion in One-Dimension(Kinematics Position...

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1 Motion in One Motion in One- Dimension (Kinematics) Dimension (Kinematics) Position / Displacement circle6 Position is measured from an origin: barb4left Joe is 10 feet to the right of the lamp barb4left origin = lamp barb4left direction = to the right barb4left position vector 10 meters Joe O -x +x 10 meters Motion in One Dimension circle6 Describes motion while ignoring the agents that caused the motion circle6 In this chapter, we will consider motion in one dimension barb4left Along a straight line circle6 Will use the particle model barb4left A particle is a point-like object, has mass but infinitesimal size
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2 Position Position circle6 Defined in terms of a frame of reference barb4left One dimensional, so generally the x- or y-axis circle6 A particles position is the location of the particle with respect to a chosen reference point that we can consider to be the origin. Position Position- Time Graph circle6 The position-time graph shows the motion of the particle (car) circle6 The smooth curve is a guess as to what happened between the data points
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3 Displacement Displacement circle6 Defined as the change in position during some time interval Δ x = x f x i (2.1) SI units are meters (m) Δ x can be positive or negative circle6 Different than distance – the length of a path followed by a particle circle6 Displacement is a vector quantity circle6 Vector quantities need both magnitude (size or numerical value) and direction to completely describe them barb4left Will use + and – signs to indicate vector directions Average Velocity circle6 The average velocity is rate at which the displacement occurs circle6 (2.2) circle6 The dimensions are length / time [L/T] circle6 The SI units are m/s circle6 Is also the slope of the line in the position – time graph circle6 Vector quantity f i average x x x v t t Δ = = Δ Δ
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4 Average Speed Average speed = total distance / total time (2.3) circle6 Speed is a scalar quantity barb4left same units as velocity circle6 The average speed is not (necessarily) the magnitude of the average velocity Example 2.1: Find the displacement, average velocity, and average speed of the car
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