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Complexity-Simon-Presentation

Complexity-Simon-Presentation - Click to edit Master...

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Unformatted text preview: Click to edit Master subtitle style 8/1/11 Architecture of Complexity 8/1/11 Introduction • Abstractly states some of the common properties that physical, biological, and social systems have in common • Tries to cast some light on how complexity can be found in natures without relating it to any particular field of study 8/1/11 Hierarchical System • “complexity frequently takes the form of hierarchy, and that hierarchic systems have some common properties that are independent of their specific content” • Complex System in which each of the subsystems is subordinated by an authority relation to the system it 8/1/11 Social Systems • Formal Organization – Families (Elementary unit) – Villages, tribes – Business firms, governments, universities • Grouping is defined by “some measure of frequency of interaction 8/1/11 Biological and Physical Systems • Cell as a building block – Tissues • Organs – Systems of Organs • Cell – Cell Membrane • Microsomes 8/1/11 Biological and Physical Systems • Elementary units or complex system? – Gasses – Diamonds • Span of Control – number of subordinates who report directly to the boss • Flat hierarchy – having a wide span of control at one level but not on the next level 8/1/11 Symbolic Systems • Book – Chapters • Paragraphs – Sentences » Words • Music – Movements • Parts 8/1/11 Further the point of hierarchy: • Java – Primitives • Functions – Classes » Groups of Classes with inheritance • Programs 8/1/11 Evolution of Complex Systems 8/1/11 Watchmaker Parable There are two watchmakers, Tempus and Hora. Both make fine watches and are highly regarded by their customers, who call them constantly. But Hora prospered, while Tempus went out of business. 8/1/11 Watchmaker Parable, Each watchmaker had different ways of constructing watches. Tempus designed his watch so that if he had a watch partially assembled and he had to put down the watch and answer the phone, the watch fell apart. Hora designed his watch so that he could put together subassemblies of 10 parts. These subassemblies in turn could be put together into 10 larger subassemblies, which when 8/1/11 Which way was faster? p is the probability of being interrupted while adding a single part. For Tempus, the probability of completing 1 watch is (1 – p)^1000, i.e. a really small chance. On average, each interruption costs the amount of time needed to assemble 1/p parts. For Hora, he has to complete 111 subassemblies (100 10-part subassemblies, 10 100-part subassemblies, 1 1000-part watch). The probability of completing 1 subassembly is (1 – p )^10. On average, each interruption costs the 8/1/11 Which way is faster?...
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