UNIX-Richie&Thompson - 1. Introduction There have...

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365 Electronic version recreated by Eric A. Brewer University of California at Berkeley Communications July 1974 of Volume 17 the ACM Number 7 The UNIX Time- Sharing System Dennis M. Ritchie and Ken Thompson Bell Laboratories UNIX is a general-purpose, multi-user, interactive operating system for the Digital Equipment Corpora- tion PDP-11/40 and 11/45 computers. It offers a number of features seldom found even in larger operating sys- tems, including: (1) a hierarchical file system incorpo- rating demountable volumes; (2) compatible file, device, and inter-process I/O; (3) the ability to initiate asynchro- nous processes; (4) system command language select- able on a per-user basis; and (5) over 100 subsystems including a dozen languages. This paper discusses the nature and implementation of the file system and of the user command interface. Key Words and Phrases: time-sharing, operating system, file system, command language, PDP-11 CR Categories: 4.30, 4.32 Copyright © 1974, Association for Computing Machinery, Inc. General permission to republish, but not for profit, all or part of this material is granted provided that ACM’s copyright notice is given and that reference is made to the publication, to its date of issue, and to the fact that reprinting privileges were granted by permission of the Association for Computing Machinery. This is a revised version of a paper presented at the Fourth ACM Symposium on Operating Systems Principles, IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights. New York, Octo- ber 15–17, 1973. Authors’ address: Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ 07974. The electronic version was recreated by Eric A. Brewer, Uni- versity of California at Berkeley, brewer@cs.berkeley.edu. Please notify me of any deviations from the original; I have left errors in the original unchanged. 1. Introduction There have been three versions of UNIX. The earliest version (circa 1969–70) ran on the Digital Equipment Cor- poration PDP-7 and -9 computers. The second version ran on the unprotected PDP-11/20 computer. This paper describes only the PDP-11/40 and /45 [l] system since it is more modern and many of the differences between it and older UNIX systems result from redesign of features found to be deficient or lacking. Since PDP-11 UNIX became operational in February 1971, about 40 installations have been put into service; they are generally smaller than the system described here. Most of them are engaged in applications such as the preparation and formatting of patent applications and other textual material, the collection and processing of trouble data from various switching machines within the Bell System, and recording and checking telephone service orders. Our own installation is used mainly for research in operating sys- tems, languages, computer networks, and other topics in computer science, and also for document preparation. Perhaps the most important achievement of UNIX is to
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This note was uploaded on 07/30/2011 for the course COP 4600 taught by Professor Montagne during the Spring '08 term at University of Central Florida.

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UNIX-Richie&Thompson - 1. Introduction There have...

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