ComputerSystemsForMusic - 3 A Survey of Computer Systems...

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Unformatted text preview: 3 A Survey of Computer Systems for Expressive Music Performance ALEXIS KIRKE and EDUARDO RECK MIRANDA University of Plymouth We present a survey of research into automated and semiautomated computer systems for expressive per- formance of music. We will examine the motivation for such systems and then examine the majority of the systems developed over the last 25 years. To highlight some of the possible future directions for new research, the review uses primary terms of reference based on four elements: testing status, expressive representation, polyphonic ability, and performance creativity. Categories and Subject Descriptors: J.5 [ Arts and Humanities ]: Performing arts (e.g. dance, music) General Terms: Algorithms, Experimentation, Human Factors Additional Key Words and Phrases: Music performance, generative performance, computer music, machine learning ACM Reference Format: Kirke, A. and Miranda, E. R. 2009. A survey of computer systems for expressive music performance. ACM Comput. Surv. 42, 1, Article 3 (December 2009), 41 pages. DOI = 10.1145/1592451.1592454, http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1592451.1592454 1. INTRODUCTION In the early 1980s the seeds of a problem were sown as a result of synthesizers being de- veloped and sold with built-in sequencers. The introduction of MIDI into this equation led to an explosion in the use of sequencers and computers, thanks to the new potential for connection and synchronization. These computers and sequencers performed their stored tunes in perfect metronomic time, a performance which sounded robotic. They sounded robotic because human performers normally perform expressively—for exam- ple, speeding up and slowing down while playing, and changing how loudly they play. The performers’ changes in tempo and dynamics allow them to express a fixed score— hence the term expressive performance [Widmer and Goebl 2004]. However, rather than looking for ways to give the music performances more humanlike expression, pop per- formers developed new types of music, such as synth-pop and dance music, that actually utilized this metronomic perfection to generate robotic performances. This work has been funded by the U.K. EPSRC project “Learning the Structure of Music” (EPD063612-1). Authors’ addresses: Interdisciplinary Center for Computer Music Research (ICCMR), University of Ply- mouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, Devon PL4 8AA, U.K.; email: { Alexis.Kirke,Eduardo.Miranda } @Plymouth. ac.uk. Permission to make digital or hard copies of part or all of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies show this notice on the first page or initial screen of a display along with the full citation. Copyrights for components of this work owned by others than ACM must be honored. Abstracting with credit is per- mitted. To copy otherwise, to republish, to post on servers, to redistribute to lists, or to use any componentmitted....
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ComputerSystemsForMusic - 3 A Survey of Computer Systems...

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