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DenialOfServiceAttacks - Survey of Network-Based Defense...

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Survey of Network-Based Defense Mechanisms Countering the DoS and DDoS Problems TAO PENG, CHRISTOPHER LECKIE, and KOTAGIRI RAMAMOHANARAO Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Australia This article presents a survey of denial of service attacks and the methods that have been proposed for defense against these attacks. In this survey, we analyze the design decisions in the Internet that have created the potential for denial of service attacks. We review the state-of-art mechanisms for defending against denial of service attacks, compare the strengths and weaknesses of each proposal, and discuss potential countermea- sures against each defense mechanism. We conclude by highlighting opportunities for an integrated solution to solve the problem of distributed denial of service attacks. Categories and Subject Descriptors: C.2.0 [ Computer-Communication Networks ]: General— Security and protection (e.g., firewalls) ; C.2.3 [ Computer-Communication Network ]— Network operation General Terms: Reliability, Security Additional Key Words and Phrases: Botnet, bandwidth attack, DNS reflector attack, DoS, DDoS, Internet security, IP spoofing, IP traceback, IRC, resource management, SYN flood, VoIP security ACM Reference Format: Peng, T., Leckie, C., and Ramamohanarao, K. 2007. Survey of network-based defense mechanisms countering the DoS and DDoS problems. ACM Comput. Surv. 39 , 1, Article 3 (April 2007), 42 pages DOI = 10.1145/ 1216370.1216373 http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1216370.1216373 1. INTRODUCTION The Internet was originally designed for openness and scalability. The infrastructure is certainly working as envisioned by that yardstick. However, the price of this suc- cess has been poor security. For example, the Internet Protocol (IP) was designed to support ease of attachment of hosts to networks, and provides little support for veri- fying the contents of IP packet header fields [Clark 1988]. This makes it possible to fake the source address of packets, and hence difficult to identify the source of traf- fic. Moreover, there is no inherent support in the IP layer to check whether a source is authorized to access a service. Packets are delivered to their destination, and the server at the destination must decide whether to accept and service these packets. While defenses such as firewalls can be added to protect servers, a key challenge for This work was supported by the Australian Research Council. Authors’ addresses: Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering, ICT Building, 111 Barry Street, The University of Melbourne, Parkville VIC 3052, Australia; email: { tpeng,caleckie } @csse. unimelb.edu.au,[email protected] . Permission to make digital or hard copies of part or all of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or direct commercial advantage and that copies show this notice on the first page or initial screen of a display along with the full citation. Copy- rights for components of this work owned by others than ACM must be honored. Abstracting with credit is permitted. To copy otherwise, to republish, to post on servers, to redistribute to lists, or to use any component
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