Quantum Cryptography: A Survey
DAGMAR BRUSS, G
ELYI, TIM MEYER, TOBIAS RIEGE, and J
We survey some results in quantum cryptography. After a brief introduction to classical cryptography, we
provide the quantum-mechanical background needed to present some fundamental protocols from quantum
cryptography. In particular, we review quantum key distribution via the BB84 protocol and its security proof,
as well as the related quantum bit commitment protocol and its proof of insecurity.
Categories and Subject Descriptors: E.3 [
]: Data Encryption—
; E.4 [
]: Coding and
Error control codes
; F.1 [
Theory of Computation
]: Computation by Abstract Devices;
Analysis of Algorithms and Problem Complexity
]: Nonnumerical Problems and Algorithms—
Computations on discrete structures
; J.2 [
]: Physical Sciences and Engineering—
General Terms: Theory, Security, Algorithms, Experimentation
Additional Key Words and Phrases: Quantum bit commitment, quantum cryptography, quantum key
ACM Reference Format:
Bruss, D., Erd´elyi, G., Meyer, T., Riege, T., and Rothe, J. 2007. Quantum cryptography: A survey.
. 39, 2, Article 6 (June 2007), 27 pages DOI
Cryptography is the science of keeping private information from unauthorized access,
of ensuring data integrity and authentication, and other tasks. In this survey, we will
focus on quantum-cryptographic key distribution and bit commitment protocols and we
in particular will discuss their security. Before turning to quantum cryptography, let
us give a brief review of classical cryptography, its current challenges and its historical
This work was supported in part by the DFG under Grants RO 1202/9-1 and RO 1202/9-3, by the Alexander
von Humboldt Foundation in the TransCoop Program, and by the EU Integrated Project SECOQC.
A preliminary version was presented at
A Magyar Tudomany Napja
,E¨otv¨os J´ozsef F¨oiskola, Baja, Hungary,
in November 2005.
Authors’ addresses: D. Bruß and T. Meyer, Institut f¨ur Theoretische Physik, Heinrich-Heine-Universit¨at
D¨usseldorf, 40225 D¨usseldorf, Germany, email:
; G. Erd´elyi, T.
Riege, and J. Rothe, Institut f¨ur Informatik, Heinrich-Heine-Universit¨at D¨usseldorf, 40225 D¨usseldorf,
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