QuantumCryptography - Quantum Cryptography: A Survey DAGMAR...

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Quantum Cryptography: A Survey DAGMAR BRUSS, G ´ ABOR ERD ´ ELYI, TIM MEYER, TOBIAS RIEGE, and J ¨ ORG ROTHE Heinrich-Heine-Universit¨at D¨usseldorf We survey some results in quantum cryptography. After a brief introduction to classical cryptography, we provide the quantum-mechanical background needed to present some fundamental protocols from quantum cryptography. In particular, we review quantum key distribution via the BB84 protocol and its security proof, as well as the related quantum bit commitment protocol and its proof of insecurity. Categories and Subject Descriptors: E.3 [ Data ]: Data Encryption— Code breaking ; E.4 [ Data ]: Coding and Information Theory— Error control codes ; F.1 [ Theory of Computation ]: Computation by Abstract Devices; F.2.2 [ Analysis of Algorithms and Problem Complexity ]: Nonnumerical Problems and Algorithms— Computations on discrete structures ; J.2 [ Computer Applications ]: Physical Sciences and Engineering— Physics General Terms: Theory, Security, Algorithms, Experimentation Additional Key Words and Phrases: Quantum bit commitment, quantum cryptography, quantum key distribution ACM Reference Format: Bruss, D., Erd´elyi, G., Meyer, T., Riege, T., and Rothe, J. 2007. Quantum cryptography: A survey. ACM Comput. Surv . 39, 2, Article 6 (June 2007), 27 pages DOI = 10.1145/1242471.1242474 http://doi.acm.org/ 10.1145/1242471.1242474 1. INTRODUCTION Cryptography is the science of keeping private information from unauthorized access, of ensuring data integrity and authentication, and other tasks. In this survey, we will focus on quantum-cryptographic key distribution and bit commitment protocols and we in particular will discuss their security. Before turning to quantum cryptography, let us give a brief review of classical cryptography, its current challenges and its historical development. This work was supported in part by the DFG under Grants RO 1202/9-1 and RO 1202/9-3, by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation in the TransCoop Program, and by the EU Integrated Project SECOQC. A preliminary version was presented at A Magyar Tudomany Napja ,E¨otv¨os J´ozsef F¨oiskola, Baja, Hungary, in November 2005. Authors’ addresses: D. Bruß and T. Meyer, Institut f¨ur Theoretische Physik, Heinrich-Heine-Universit¨at D¨usseldorf, 40225 D¨usseldorf, Germany, email: { bruss,meyer } @thphy.uni-duesseldorf.de ; G. Erd´elyi, T. Riege, and J. Rothe, Institut f¨ur Informatik, Heinrich-Heine-Universit¨at D¨usseldorf, 40225 D¨usseldorf, Germany; email: { erdelyi,riege,rothe } @cs.uni-duesseldorf.de . Permission to make digital or hard copies of part or all of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for pro±t or direct commercial advantage and that copies show this notice on the ±rst page or initial screen of a display along with the full citation.
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QuantumCryptography - Quantum Cryptography: A Survey DAGMAR...

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