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Book - Internet-Based Workow Management Towards a Semantic...

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Internet-Based Workflow Management Towards a Semantic Web Dan C. Marinescu A Wiley-Interscience Publication JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. New York / Chichester / Weinheim / Brisbane / Singapore / Toronto
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v To Magda and Andrei.
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Contents Preface xvii 1 Internet-Based Workflows 1 1.1 Workflows and the Internet 1 1.1.1 Historic Perspective 2 1.1.2 Enabling Technologies 3 1.1.3 Nomadic, Network-Centric, and Network- Aware Computing 5 1.1.4 Information Grids; the Semantic Web 6 1.1.5 Workflow Management in a Semantic Web 7 1.2 Informal Introduction to Workflows 8 1.2.1 Assembly of a Laptop 9 1.2.2 Computer Scripts 12 1.2.3 A Metacomputing Example 14 1.2.4 Automatic Monitoring and Benchmarking of Web Services 15 1.2.5 Lessons Learned 16 1.3 Workflow Reference Model 17 1.4 Workflows and Database Management Systems 18 1.4.1 Database Transactions 18 1.4.2 Workflow Products 19 vii
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viii CONTENTS 1.5 Internet Workflow Models 20 1.5.1 Basic Concepts 21 1.5.2 The Life Cycle of a Workflow 23 1.5.3 States, Events, and Transition Systems 23 1.5.4 Safe and Live Processes 27 1.6 Transactional versus Internet-Based Workflows 30 1.7 Workflow Patterns 31 1.8 Workflow Enactment 33 1.8.1 Task Activation and States 33 1.8.2 Workflow Enactment Models 34 1.9 Workflow Coordination 35 1.10 Challenges of Dynamic Workflows 39 1.11 Further Reading 39 1.12 Exercises and Problems 40 References 42 2 Basic Concepts and Models 47 2.1 Introduction 48 2.1.1 System Models 48 2.1.2 Functional and Dependability Attributes 50 2.1.3 Major Concerns in the Design of a Distributed System 51 2.2 Information Transmission and Communication Channel Models 52 2.2.1 Channel Bandwidth and Latency 52 2.2.2 Entropy and Mutual Information 54 2.2.3 Binary Symmetric Channels 57 2.2.4 Information Encoding 59 2.2.5 Channel Capacity: Shannon’s Theorems 60 2.2.6 Error Detecting and Error Correcting Codes 62 2.2.7 Final Remarks on Communication Channel Models 72 2.3 Process Models 72 2.3.1 Processes and Events 72 2.3.2 Local and Global States 74 2.3.3 Process Coordination 74 2.3.4 Time, Time Intervals, and Global Time 76 2.3.5 Cause-Effect Relationship, Concurrent Events 77 2.3.6 Logical Clocks 78
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CONTENTS ix 2.3.7 Message Delivery to Processes 79 2.3.8 Process Algebra 81 2.3.9 Final Remarks on Process Models 82 2.4 Synchronous and Asynchronous Message Passing System Models 83 2.4.1 Time and the Process Channel Model 83 2.4.2 Synchronous Systems 83 2.4.3 Asynchronous Systems 89 2.4.4 Final Remarks on Synchronous and Asynchronous Systems 90 2.5 Monitoring Models 90 2.5.1 Runs 91 2.5.2 Cuts; the Frontier of a Cut 91 2.5.3 Consistent Cuts and Runs 92 2.5.4 Causal History 92 2.5.5 Consistent Global States and Distributed Snapshots 93 2.5.6 Monitoring and Intrusion 95 2.5.7 Quantum Computing, Entangled States, and Decoherence 95 2.5.8 Examples of Monitoring Systems 99 2.5.9 Final Remarks on Monitoring 100 2.6 Reliability and Fault Tolerance Models. Reliable Collective Communication 100 2.6.1 Failure Modes 101 2.6.2 Redundancy 101 2.6.3 Broadcast and Multicast 103 2.6.4 Properties of a Broadcast Algorithm 104 2.6.5 Broadcast Primitives 104 2.6.6 Terminating Reliable Broadcast and Consensus 106 2.7 Resource Sharing, Scheduling, and Performance Models 107 2.7.1
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