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f99u3le3 - P ROJECT O CEANOGRAPHY A NTARCTIC O CEANOGRAPHY...

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Unformatted text preview: P ROJECT O CEANOGRAPHY A NTARCTIC O CEANOGRAPHY 107 A NTARCTIC Lesson 3: Antarctic Oceanography- Animals: Penguins, Seals and Whales Lesson Objectives: Students will be introduced to the Marine animals that live on the ice sheets of Antarctica. Our main focus will be seals, whales and penguins. We will discuss adaptation, survival, and their place in the food chain. Very few animals are permanent residents on Antarctica's landmass; mostly worms, insects and mites are found there. No vertebrates, or backboned animals, of any kind are naturally found in Antarctica. Penguins Penguins are flightless birds found only in the Southern Hemisphere. They are clumsy on land but very agile in the water. Their wing like flippers helps them dive and swim through the icy waters. There are several penguin species found in Antarctica (see table), but only the Emperor lives on the ice shelf. In March, female Emperor penguins come ashore to claim their breeding ground and mate. In May or June, she lays her egg. The female goes to sea to feed and leaves the egg with the Emperor male, who holds the egg on his feet and warms it with folds of loose skin. This incubation lasts for two months. The males must survive on stored body fat for that duration. After feeding for several weeks, the females return and the male must then make the trek back to the sea to feed, which often can be several miles from the nest site. He needs to renourish himself and bring back food for the female and the baby. The baby P ROJECT O CEANOGRAPHY A NTARCTIC O CEANOGRAPHY 108 A NTARCTIC is cared for by its parents until it is able to care for itself, usually at about 5 months of age. Seals and whales are predators of penguins. Penguins of Antarctica NAME POPULATION SIZE DIET EMPEROR Under 200,000 breeding pairs. Height - 36"-42" Weight - 66-88 pounds. Krill, squid and fish. KING 1 to 1.5 million pairs. Height 37" Weight - 30 lbs. Fish and squid ADELIE 2.5 million breeding pairs. Height - approx. 30" Weight - 11 lbs. Antarctic and ice krill. CHINSTRAP 7.5 million pairs. Height - 27" Weight - 9 lbs. Almost exclusively krill. ROCK- HOPPER Estimated to be near 3.7 million pairs. Height - 21" Weight - 5-6 lbs. Lantern fish and euphausiid crustaceans GENTOO Estimated 300,000 breeding pairs. Height - 23" Weight - 12 lbs. Crustaceans, fish and squid MACARONI 11.8 million pairs. Height - 27" Weight - 9 lbs. Lantern fish and euphausiid crustaceans. P ROJECT O CEANOGRAPHY A NTARCTIC O CEANOGRAPHY 109 A NTARCTIC Seals The common seals found in Antarctica are the Weddell, Ross, Crabeater, Leopard, Southern Elephant and Antarctic Fur Seal. Other than the Fur seal, they are all "earless" seals, meaning they have no external ear structures, but they have excellent hearing both on land and in the sea....
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f99u3le3 - P ROJECT O CEANOGRAPHY A NTARCTIC O CEANOGRAPHY...

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