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s99u1le3 - Project Oceanography Spring Series 1999 -Ocean...

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Unformatted text preview: Project Oceanography Spring Series 1999 -Ocean Color 29 Ocean Color Lesson III: Ocean Color: Energy, Temperature, and the Big Picture In this lesson we will discuss the Electromagnetic spectrum, electromagnetic energy and sea surface temperature. Electromagnetic Spectrum The electromagnetic (EM) spectrum is the term that scientists use to refer to all types of radiation. Radiation is energy that travels and spreads out as it goes. Visible light that comes from a lamp in your house and radio waves that come from a radio station are two types of electromagnetic radiation. Other examples of EM radiation are microwaves, infrared and ultraviolet light, X- rays and gamma-rays. The rainbow of colors that we see in visible light represents only a very small portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The EM spectrum is the continuum of energy that ranges from meters to nanometers in wavelength and travels at the speed of light. On one end of the spectrum are radio waves with wavelengths billions of times longer than those of visible light. On the other end of the spectrum are gamma rays. These have wavelengths millions of times smaller than those of visible light. Project Oceanography Spring Series 1999 -Ocean Color 30 Ocean Color All matter (except at absolute zero temperature) radiates EM energy with peak intensity shifting toward shorter wavelength with increasing temperature. The amount of energy ( R ) radiated by a black body per unit time per unit area is proportional to temperatures ( T ) to the fourth power: R= t 4 This is the Stefan- Boltzman Law and the constant has a value of = 5.67 x 10-8 w x m-2 x K-4 . Where w=watts, m=meters and K = temperatures in degrees Kelvin. Electromagnetic Energy Adapted from: Frank Mueller Electromagnetic (EM) energy is energy that moves at the velocity of light in a harmonic wave pattern (waves that occur at equal intervals of time). EM energy can only be detected as it interacts with matter. EM waves can be described in terms of velocity, wavelength , and frequency. EM waves travel at the velocity (speed) of light, c: c= 299,793 km s-1 c= 3x10^8 m s-1 Project Oceanography Spring Series 1999 -Ocean Color 31 Ocean Color Wavelength ( ) is the distance from any point on one cycle or wave to the same position on the next cycle or wave. Units: m=micrometers or microns=10-6 meters (VIS,IR) nm= nanometers= 10-9 meters (VIS) Frequency ( ) is the number of wave crests passing a given point in a specified period of time. It is imeasurend in units called hertz (cycles per second). The speed of light and wavelenth can with media, frequency does not. http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/science/know_l2/emspectrum.ht ml Space, Earth and Ocean Observatories in Different Regions of the EM Spectrum Excerpted from: http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/science/k now_l2/emspectrum.html Radio observatories At present, there is one radio observatory in space. There are plans, however, for one more in the next year. Radio waves can make it through the Earth's atmosphere without significant...
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s99u1le3 - Project Oceanography Spring Series 1999 -Ocean...

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