sp02u1p5 - Unit One CINMS Marine Reserves Lesson Objectives...

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Unit One CINMS ©Project Oceanography Spring 2002 32 Marine Reserves Lesson Objectives: Students will be able to do the following: Describe the advantages of a marine reserve as a management tool Differentiate between a consensus process and a majority rule process Name and describe three types of technology used to monitor reserves Key concepts: conservation, fishery management, geographic information systems, stakeholders, consensus Marine Reserves as Management Tools Marine reserves are among the management tools being considered in the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary. Marine reserves are “no-take” zones where all removal of resources (such as fishing) is prohibited. People are allowed to use marine reserves for recreational purposes such as wildlife viewing, photography, and diving. Marine reserves are being considered as a management tool for several reasons. The number of people living near our coasts is growing. Currently more than fifty percent of our population lives within fifty miles of the coastline. Many people use the oceans for recreation. Some people make their living by fishing. As people learn more about the ocean, and technology improves, fishing becomes much more efficient. Increased fishing efficiency can lead to the rapid depletion of mature (reproducing) members of a species . As cities grow, pollution from industry may increase. Polluted water from industrial or agricultural sites may enter the ocean. In addition to human impacts, changes in natural cycles also affect marine systems. Extremes in weather conditions (such as El Nino) can have an impact on marine organisms. Resource managers realize that new strategies need to be developed to protect biodiversity and sustain fisheries. These strategies will require careful evaluation of the many factors that influence ocean ecosystems . Marine reserves are one way to approach this problem. Sanctuary managers want to use marine reserves as conservation and fishery management tools. Conservation measures protect species and habitats of special concern. There are two components to conservation: preservation and enhancement. Preservation issues include protecting the organisms and
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Unit One CINMS ©Project Oceanography Spring 2002 33 habitats in their present condition. Enhancement strategies try to ensure that the populations of organisms increase to sustainable levels. Conservation efforts include collecting scientific information (such as fish counts) to determine the distribution and status of species of concern. Managers use these data to determine the best way to protect the natural resources. Fishery management tools are used to maintain fished populations at sustainable levels. These tools include catch limits (such as size or seasonal restrictions), effort limits (such as gear restrictions), and marine reserves (which limit both effort and catch). Researchers are trying to determine ways to create sustainable fisheries. This means that the fish must have enough reproducing adults to keep their populations from declining.
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