ch12 - Using Information Ethically Ethically Ch. 12 Moral...

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Unformatted text preview: Using Information Ethically Ethically Ch. 12 Moral Dimensions of the Information Age Information rights and obligations Property rights Accountability and control System quality Quality of life Key Technology Trends that Raise Ethical Issues Computing power doubles every 18 months: Dependence on computer systems Rapidly declining data storage costs: Easy maintenance of individual database Key Technology Trends that Raise Ethical Issues Datamining advances: Analysis of vast quantities of data Networking advances and the Internet: Remotely accessing personal data Candidate Ethical Principles • Golden rule: Do unto others as you would have them do unto you would • Immanuel Kant’s categorical Immanuel imperative: If an action is not right for imperative: everyone to take, then it is not right for anyone anyone Candidate Ethical Principles • Descartes’ rule of change: If an action cannot be taken repeatedly, then it is not right to be taken at any time right • Utilitarian principle: Put values in rank Utilitarian order and understand consequences of various courses of action various Candidate Ethical Principles • Risk aversion principle: Take the Risk action that produces the least harm or incurs the least cost incurs • Ethical “no free lunch” rule: All Ethical tangible and intangible objects are owned by creator who wants compensation for the work the Professional Codes of Conduct • Promises by professions to regulate Promises themselves in the general interest of society society • Promulgated by associations such as the Promulgated American Medical Association (AMA) and the American Bar Association (ABA) the PRIVACY "The right to be left alone -- the most comprehensive of rights, and the right most valued by a free people." - Justice Louis Brandeis, Olmstead v. U.S. (1928). U.S. Federal Privacy Laws • • • Freedom of Information Act, 1968 Freedom Privacy Act of 1974 Electronic Communications Privacy Act of Electronic 1986 1986 • Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Computer Act of 1988 Act • Computer Security Act of 1987 • Federal Managers Financial Integrity Act of Federal 1982 1982 The Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998 Makes it a crime to circumvent antipiracy measures built into most commercial software. In general, limits Internet service providers from copyright infringement liability for simply transmitting information over the Internet. The European Directive on Data Protection Informed consent Informed • Consent given with knowledge of all facts Consent needed to make a rational decision needed • European protections of electronic privacy European stronger than in the U.S. stronger Internet Challenges to Privacy Cookies Cookies • Tiny files deposited on a hard drive • Used to identify the visitor and track visits to Used the Web site the Internet Challenges to Privacy Web bugs Web • Tiny graphic files embedded in e-mail Tiny messages and Web pages • Designed to monitor on-line Internet user Designed behavior behavior Internet Challenges to Privacy Opt-out model Opt-out • Informed consent permitting the collection of Informed personal information • Consumer specifically requests for the data Consumer not to be collected not Internet Challenges to Privacy Opt-in model Opt-in • Informed consent prohibiting an organization Informed from collecting any personal information • Individual has to approve information Individual collection and use collection Challenges to Intellectual Property Rights Ethical Social issues: Production of intellectual property issues: Current intellectual property laws breaking down Political issues: Creation of new property protection measures Accountability, Liability and Control Ethical issues: Who is morally responsible for consequences of use? Social issues: What should society expect and allow? Political issues: To what extent should government intervene, protect? System Quality: Data Quality and System Errors Ethical issues: At what point to release the software/services for consumption? Social issues: Should people be encouraged to believe systems are infallible? Political Issues: Laws of responsibility and accountability Quality of Life: Equity, Access, and Boundaries Employment- Trickle-down technology and reengineering job loss: Causes millions of middle-level managers and clerical workers to lose their jobs Equity and access- Increasing racial and social class cleavages: Society of computer literate and skilled, versus computer illiterate and unskilled Health Risks: RSI, CVS, and Technostress Repetitive stress injury (RSI) Occupational disease Muscle groups are forced through repetitive actions with high-impact loads or thousands of repetitions with low impact loads Health Risks: RSI, CVS, and Technostress Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) Type of RSI Pressure on the median nerve through the wrist’s bony carpal tunnel structure produces pain Health Risks: RSI, CVS, and Technostress Computer vision syndrome (CVS) Eyestrain condition Related to computer display screen usage Symptoms include headaches, blurred vision, and dry and irritated eyes Health Risks: RSI, CVS, and Technostress Technostress Stress induced by computer use Symptoms include aggravation, hostility toward humans, impatience, and enervation Management Actions: A Corporate Code of Ethics Information rights and obligations Property rights and obligations Accountability and control System quality Quality of life Privacy vs Security Privacy is a legal right of an individual to maintain control over personal data Security is a technical issue related to protecting data from unauthorized access TRUSTe members must make explicit their use of personal data Normative Theories Stockholder theory – businesses should focus on bottom-line only Stakeholder theory – managers have a fiduciary responsibility to other stakeholders Social contract theory – business decisions should reflect the social welfare, businesses must pursue profits legally and avoid acts that injure society International Federation of Information Processing International agency aligned with UN Seeks to make members aware of social consequences of their work and encourage designers and users to take human needs into account when making system choices Unsuccessful in gaining consensus on Internet governance 10 Commandments of Computer Ethics Adopted from guidelines of the Computer Ethics Institute See Fig 12.4 end chapter 12 end ...
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