Chapter 2 - Chapter 2 Structure and Functions of the Cells...

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Chapter 2 Structure and Functions of the Cells of the Nervous System
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The Nervous System Central Nervous System (CNS) Brain and Spinal cord Encased within skull and spinal column Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) All nervous tissue located outside the brain and spinal cord (i.e. nerves of most of sensory organs)
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Types of neurons Sensory neurons – a neuron that detects changes in the external or internal env’t and sends info about these changes to the CNS Motor neuron – a neuron located within the CNS that controls the contraction of a muscle or the secretion of a gland Interneuron – a neuron located entirely within the CNS brain Spinal cord Sensory neuron Motor neuron interneuron
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Cells of the Nervous System: Neurons
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Neurons Neuron types: Multipolar – a neuron with one axon and many dendrites attached to its soma Bipolar – a neuron with one axon and one dendrite attached to its soma Unipolar – a neuron with one axon attached to its soma; the axon divides, with one branch receiving sensory info and the other sending the info to the CNS
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Internal structure of the neuron Membrane – lipid bilayer creates a boundary for the cell’s contents Nucleus – contains nucleolus and chromosomes Nucleolus – produces ribosomes Ribosomes – a cytoplasmic structure, made of protein, that serves as the site of production of proteins translated from mRNA Chromosomes – a strand of DNA, with assc. Proteins, found in the nucleus; carries genetic info Mitochondria – an organelle that is responsible for extracting energy from nutrients (and thus providing cells with ATP) Endoplasmic reticulum – contains ribosomes (rough) and provides channels for segregation of molecules involved in cellular processes (smooth); lipid molecules are made here (smooth) Golgi apparatus – wraps around products of a secretory cell (secretion = exocytosis); also produces lysosomes (breaks down waste products)
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Internal structure of the neuron Cytoskeleton – structural support system of neuron; made of 3 kinds of protein strands (one of these is microtubules) Microtubule – involved in transporting substances from place to place within cell Axoplasmic transport – active process by which substances are propelled along microtubules that run the length of the axon Anterograde – from cell toward terminal buttons Retrograde – from terminal buttons towards cell body
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Supporting cells: Glia Oligodendrocytes
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Chapter 2 - Chapter 2 Structure and Functions of the Cells...

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