Chapter 15 - Chapter 15 Human Communication Speech...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–7. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chapter 15 Human Communication
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Speech production and comprehension Most of what we know about the physiology of language is from studying individuals that have suffered cerebrovascular accidents (a stroke; caused by blockage or rupture of a blood vessel in the brain); the interruption of blood flow deprives a region of the brain of its blood supply, which causes cells in that region to die Also, information from patients with seizure disorders that require brain surgery, and functional imaging studies Aphasia – most important category of speech disorders; difficulty in producing or comprehending speech not produced by deafness or a simple motor deficit; caused by brain damage
Background image of page 2
Lateralization Verbal behavior is a lateralized function; that is, areas of the left hemisphere are primarily responsible for speech production and comprehension The left hemisphere is specialized more for the analysis of sequences of stimuli, occurring one after the other, which may explain why speech centers are located there However, although the circuits that are primarily involved in speech comprehension and production are located in one hemisphere, the R hemisphere also plays a minor part e.g. understanding semantics, prosody (i.e. normal rhythm and stress in speech)
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Speech production Damage to a certain region of the inferior left frontal lobe (Broca’s area ) disrupts the ability to speak Broca’s aphasia – speech disorder characterized by slow, laborious, and nonfluent speech Have difficulty saying function words (e.g. the, in, some), but can manage to say content words (e.g. nouns, verbs, etc.) However, can still comprehend speech for the most part
Background image of page 4
Broca’s aphasia Broca’s area contains memories of the sequences of muscular movements that are needed to articulate words Often become frustrated by their inability to speak correctly; however, comprehension is not perfect Difficulty in comprehending meaning from word order (“The horse kicks the cow” vs. “The cow kicks the horse”) 3 major speech deficits with Broca’s aphasia: Agrammatism – difficulty in comprehending or properly employing grammatical devices, such as verb endings and word order Anomia – difficulty in finding (remembering) the appropriate word to describe an object, action, or attribute Difficulty with articulation – mispronounce words, often realizing it afterwards, and trying to correct it Damage to different areas in and around Broca’s area leads to different symptoms of aphasia Left insular cortex – controls speech articulation (damage can cause apraxia of speech : impairment in the ability to program movements of the tongue, lips, and throat required to produce the proper sequence of speech sounds
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Speech comprehension Must not just recognize words, we must understand their meaning Wernicke’s area contains neural circuits that accomplish this task Wernicke’s aphasia – a form of aphasia characterized by poor speech
Background image of page 6
Image of page 7
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Page1 / 23

Chapter 15 - Chapter 15 Human Communication Speech...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 7. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online