Chapter 16 - Chapter 16 Schizophrenia and the Affective...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 16 Schizophrenia and the Affective Disorders Schizophrenia A serious mental disorder characterized by disordered thoughts, delusions, hallucinations, and often bizarre behaviors Afflicts ~1% of population Probably the most misused psychological term literally means split mind, so often confused with multiple personality disorder Positive symptoms symptoms evident by their presence Thought disorders disorganized, irrational thinking (most important symptom) Delusions a belief that is clearly in contradiction to reality Persecution false beliefs that others are plotting against oneself Grandeur false beliefs in ones own power Control belief that one is being controlled by others Hallucinations perception of a nonexistent object or event Schizophrenia Negative symptoms characterized by the absence of behaviors that are normally present Flattened emotional response Poverty of speech Lack of initiative and persistence Inability to experience pleasure Social withdrawal Heritability Both adoption and twin studies indicate that schizophrenia is a heritable trait If there is a schizophrenia gene, then it must be triggered by some type of envtal event Study shows that higher paternal age is positively correlated with diagnosis of schizophrenia Pharmacology of Schizophrenia Dopamine hypothesis suggest that schizophrenia is caused by overactivity of DA synapses, probably those in the mesolimbic pathway Effects of DA agonists and antagonist A drug used to prevent surgical shock, chlorpromazine , was dramatically effective in reducing symptoms of schizophrenia Since this discovery, many other drugs have been developed that relieve the positive symptoms of schizophrenia; All of these drugs block DA receptors DA agonists act to produce positive symptoms of schizophrenia (e.g amphetamine, cocaine and L-DOPA) The mesolimbic pathway is most likely involved in schizophrenia; could be caused by reinforcing effects of this pathway for any of the behaviors found with positive symptoms Pharmacology of Schizophrenia Effects of DA agonists and antagonist Schizophrenics often report feelings of elation and euphoria at the beginning of a schizophrenic episode, suggesting that this is caused by hyperactivity of DA neurons involved in reinforcement Paranoid delusions may be caused by increased activity of the DA input to the amygdala Amygdala is involved with conditioned emotional responses for aversive events DA transmission abnormalities DA neurons may release more DA...
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This note was uploaded on 07/31/2011 for the course PSB 3004 taught by Professor Williams during the Spring '08 term at University of Florida.

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Chapter 16 - Chapter 16 Schizophrenia and the Affective...

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