Lecture 18 Rivers I

Lecture 18 Rivers I - Rivers and Streams Watershed Total...

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Unformatted text preview: Rivers and Streams Watershed Total land area that drains surface water to a common point. Separated topographically from adjacent basins by a geographical barrier such as a ridge, hill or mountain, which is known as a water divide . water divide 1/5 of rainwater falling a watershed collects directly in rivers Evaporation Groundwater Lakes Sinks Soil Water Wetlands 80% Amazon Watershed Worlds Largest Watershed 80 110 rainfall/year 2,720,000 sq mi the size of United States The Amazon River largest river in the world by volume, with a total flow greater than the next top ten largest rivers combined. World Hydrology Mouth of Amazon Discharge: 319,000 m per sec. 20% of freshwater entering the oceans Watershed Biodiversity 2.5 million insect species 2000 bird and mammal species 75,000 types of trees/km2 150,000 species of vascular plants/km2 1 in 5 largest collection of living plants and animal species in the world vanishing at a rate of 20,000 miles per year 10% of the Worlds Terrestrial Primary Productivity Deforestation: releases 200 million metric tons of CO2/yr Accumulated 0.62 tons of carbon per hectare per year between 1975 and 1996 More than 20 percent of the world oxygen is produced in the Amazon Currently, 121 prescription drugs sold worldwide come from plant-derived sources. 25% of Western pharmaceuticals are derived from rainforest ingredients, but less that 1% of these tropical trees and plants have been tested by scientists. $6820/hectare (intact) $1000/hectare (clear cut) $148/hectare (pasture) Congo Watershed 1,335,000 mi2 700,000 mi2 of tropical rainforest Discharge: 41,800 m/s 3,000 mi2 lost each year 2nd Largest Amazon: 319,000 m/sec West Africa confluence mouth Mississippi Watershed 1,151,000 sq mi Discharge: 12,800 m3/sec 3rd Largest confluence...
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This note was uploaded on 07/31/2011 for the course SOS 2007 taught by Professor Dr.jamesbonczek during the Summer '07 term at University of Florida.

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Lecture 18 Rivers I - Rivers and Streams Watershed Total...

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