Lecture 15 Soil Morphology and Classification

Lecture 15 Soil Morphology and Classification - Soil...

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Unformatted text preview: Soil Morphology and Classification Soil Morphology and Classification The Language of Soils Loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic grossarenic paleudult Purpose Color Texture Structure Density/Porosity Water Movement Reactivity of mineral and organic colloids Soil acidity and pH Morphology and Classification of Soils Based on physical and chemical properties Color Dark/grayish-black color Orange vs. Gray colors Texture Sandy vs. Clayey Structure Good vs. Poor Structure Density Porosity, organic matter, compaction Water Pore sizes, porosity, water movement, saturation Reactivity Cation exchange capacity Acidity Plant tolerances, buffering, base saturation All are used to classify soils Soil Formation Factors Affecting Soil Formation Climate Organisms/Vegetation Parent material Topography Time The 5 soil forming factors Climate Temperature and Precipitation Rates of chemical, physical, biological processes Cold dry climates weak to modest profile development Warm, humid climates strong, deep profile development Organisms/Vegetation O.M. accumulation Profile mixing Nutrient cycling Soil structure Soil solution (% B.S.) Parent Material Affects texture, vegetation, nutrients clay mineralogy, CEC Colluvial (gravity) Alluvial (streams) Marine (oceans) Lacustrine (lakes) Glacial (ice) Eolian (wind) silt and clay Deposition Topography Configuration of land surface elevation, slope, depressions Hastens or delays climatic forces. Impacts depth of profile development. Water Erosion Vegetation Slope Aspect Time Duration of weathering and all other factors Additions losses translocations transformations Shands Limestone Hawthorne Formation (geologic Clay) McCarty Hall E Stable, older sediments Younger sediments Soil Horizons: first step in classification Master Horizons Master Horizons O organic A topsoil, O.M., cycling E elluvial B developed/accumulation C parent material R bedrock A horizon B horizon C horizon O horizon Soil Horizon designations Soil Horizon designations E horizon Organic matter Sandy Clays/iron Parent E horizon A horizon B horizon (Illuvial) (Elluvial) C horizon R horizon O horizon Master Horizons Master Horizons B horizon Enough information? Subordinate Distinctions b buried horizon c concretions d root restrictive g gleying h illuvial organic matter k carbonates m cementation o - oxic p plowing/disturbance q secondary silica r soft bedrock (saprolite)...
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This note was uploaded on 07/31/2011 for the course SOS 3022 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at University of Florida.

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Lecture 15 Soil Morphology and Classification - Soil...

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