Lecture 21 Organics I

Lecture 21 Organics I - Toxic Bioaccumulative Chemicals...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Toxic Bioaccumulative Chemicals Mercury Most mercury enters aquatic environments from the atmosphere The dominant inorganic forms are Hgo and Hg2+. Positively charged Hg2 can become attached to negatively + charged organic and inorganic particles in soils and sediments Under anaerobic conditions, Hg which tends to immobilize them.2+ can be converted to organic Methylmercury which is more toxic and persistent in organisms. Mercury methylation is related to the metabolism of Sulfur-reducing bacterial under anaerobic conditions The exact biochemical mechanism is poorly understood. High sulfur concentrations increase mercury methylation The following are required for mercury methylation Inorganic Mercury Anaerobic Conditions Carbon Source (sediments) Sulfate/Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria Methylmercury is more directly toxic and remains in The tissues of organisms longer than inorganic Hg2+. This allows methymercury to bioaccumulate in organisms Bioaccumulation occurs when an organism absorbs a toxic substance at a rate greater than that at which the substance is lost from the body. Bioaccumulation allows for biomagnification which is the increase in concentration of a chemical in organisms higher up in the food chain. Biomagnification: concentration of a chemical in organisms as it moves up the food chain. Organisms near the top of the food chain may have concentrations of mercury millions of times greater than in the aquatic environment Other Bioaccumulative Toxins Synthetic Organic Chemicals Synthetic Organic Chemicals Organic = carbon-rich compounds Dioxins Pesticides PCBs Flame Retardants PBDE Dioxin PCB DDT Organochlorines Potential Toxicity July November 2004 Viktor Yushchenko Ukrainian President 6,000 times the usual concentration in his body the second highest dioxin level ever measured in a human Chemicals like dioxin are acutely toxic In high doses, but they also can bioaccumulate creating chronic toxicity at lower doses The cause of their ability to bioaccumulate is related to their water solubility. Water Solubility NaCl Na+ + Cl- Sodium Chloride 350 g/L Potassium Chloride 280 g/L Why? Water Molecules are Polar + + Unequal distribution of electrons Oxygen is electron-greedy - NaCl Na+ + ClCl Sodium Chloride water solubility: 350 g/L Contrast with Organic Chemicals Organic Chemicals Carbon-rich compounds Greases, Oils, Paints, Pesticides, Industrial Chemicals Grease and Oil Carbon 83 to 87% Hydrogen 10 to 14% O H OS C il Paint 16 14 Composed mostly of carbon and hydrogen, and possessing no electrical charge. Dioxin DDT PCB C11H18O2Cl4 C14H22Cl5 C12H21Cl2 Principally carbon, hydrogen Do not possess an electrical charge Dioxin Dioxin water solubility: 0.2 µg/L Dioxin 0.2 µg/L DDT < 0.1 µg/L PCB 10 µg/L Uncharged and principally carbon, hydrogen Toxaphene: 3 mg/L Dieldrin: 186 ug/L Chlordane: 9 ug/L Greases, Oils, Paints, Pesticides, Industrial Chemicals These types of chemicals are poorly soluble in water In what substances do they dissolve? Common Organic Solvents Carbon-based D-limonene oil petroleum Hexane Organic Solvents carbon Hexane carbon Acetone Dioxin carbon Carbon-based compounds dissolve more easily in carbonbased solvents. carbon Lipids water Soap SO4SO4hydrophilic SO4hydrophobic SO4 SO4- SO4- SO4SO4SO4- High Carbon Concentration Bioaccumulation in Organisms Bioaccumulation in Organisms Lipid Tissue in Organisms carbon Fundamental similarity between the chemical and the solvent. The chemical essentially dissolves into the lipid tissues Synthetic organic chemicals are poorly soluble in water They are soluble in organic solvents and lipids Lipids are found in all organisms Despite low levels of organic chemicals in water due to their low water solubility, high amounts can accumulate in the tissues of living organisms Water Concentration = 0.2μg/L Zooplankton concentration = 160 μg/L Magnification of 800 x Bio-Magnification Water and phytoplankton to zooplankton: 800 x Zooplankton to fish: 31 x Fish to eagle: 4.8x Overall: 120,000 times original concentration in water PCBs and Pesticides PCBs Used as insulating fluids and coolants in electrical equipment and machinery from 1929-1977. Electrical equipment plasticizers in paints, plastics and rubber products pigments, dyes and carbonless copy paper EPA estimates that 150 million pounds of PCBs are dispersed throughout the environment, including air and water supplies; an additional 290 million pounds are located in landfills in this country some PCBs act like hormones, and other PCBs are nerve poisons PCBs were “banned” in 1979 Killer Whales (1000 ppm) PCBs in Marine Mammals High on food chain Lipid tissues Hazardous Waste level (Canada) Toxaphene (670 chemicals) 400,000 tons: 1946 to 1974 Seawater Arctic cod muscle Narwhal blubber carbon 0.0003 ppb 14 - 46 ppb 50,000 X 2440 - 9160 ppb ~8MX lipid Toxaphene and Mirex: 1959 - 1976 highest levels ever recorded in a living organism. Summary . Many synthetic organic chemicals are uncharged. . Because they are uncharged, they do not permit orientation of water molecules and are poorly soluble in water. . Ionic compounds (e.g. NaCl) are about 1 billion times more water-soluble than uncharged organics. . Uncharged organic chemicals, however, tend to be soluble in organic solvents and organic materials because of similar carbon-based chemistry. . These materials can include lipid tissues in organisms which can lead to biomagnification Solubility carbon Hexane carbon Acetone Dioxin carbon Carbon-based compounds dissolve more easily in carbonbased solvents. carbon Lipids water Many synthetic organic chemicals, particularly those like PCBs and DDT are very persistent in the environment. They last for decades. They become stored in organic materials that naturally occur in aquatic and terrestrial systems Where in these environments do we find high levels of carbon? Organic Matter Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Coiled and convoluted chains of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen Organic Matter H C H H H C H C H H H H C C H Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen COOH OH CH CH H C CC CC C C C carboxylic enolic Partitioning/Distribution Partitioning/Distribution Organic matter Absorption Soil Solution Partitioning of neutral organic chemicals into soil organic matter limits their mobility in the environment Aquatic Systems Environmental Persistence Water DDT Solubility of < 0.1 μg/L Organic Sediments Organic chemicals become stored in organic sediments This protects them from degradation and increases their lifetime in the environment Lake Michigan PCBs “banned” in 1979 EPA 2004 N Concentration Organic Carbon mg Carbon /g sedimen PCBs µg PCB/Kg sediment (parts per billion) Open water PCB concentration = < 1 part per trillion Lake Erie PCB levels PCBs EPA, 2004 After 30 years, PCBs continue to persist in the Environment Persistence in the Environment Old sediments Florida and Organic Chemicals DDT dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane First Modern Pesticide Insecticide developed to combat insect-borne disease Use was later expanded to include agriculture Rita Island, Okeechobee Organic soils DDT levels ranging from 2,200 to 110,000 µg/kg (ppb) in organic soils and sediments. Lake Apopka 30,800 acres mean depth is 5.4 feet 15 miles northwest of Orlando Historically characterized by clear water and a highly prized sports fishery, it served as a popular destination for boaters, swimmers, and fishermen for decades. In the 1970s, scientists considered Lake Apopka a prime place to harvest eggs and hatchlings to study them in captivity. In 1980 and 1981, scientists counted populations of 1,200 to 2,000 alligators in a single night on the lake By the late 1980s, they counted only 150 per night Pesticide Use in Agricultural Area Agriculture Pesticide use included high amounts of DDT "Lake Apopka is a big chemical soup," Michael Fry, a researcher from the University of California Tower Chemical Company TOC content ranges from 33 to 37% Produced dicofol, a mixture of the pesticide DDT and DDE, a by-product of DDT. Periodic spills occurred there, but a particularly large accident in 1980 caused dicofol to spread into the lake Alligator Population crash was linked to poor egg viability DDE, a breakdown product of DDT, is a major contaminant in Lake Apopka DDE is known to block the action of testosterone Apopka's juvenile alligators have abnormal testes and ovaries and abnormal hormone balances Estradiol Testosterone Apopka males had high levels of estradiol relative to testosterone ' Teeny Weenies ' Alligators in Florida's Lake Apopka have Smaller Penises Kyla Dunne for PBS June, 1998 http://www.mindfully.org/Pesticide/Alligators-Apopka-PBS2jun98.htm Solubility carbon Hexane carbon Acetone Dioxin carbon Carbon-based compounds dissolve more easily in carbonbased solvents. carbon Lipids water What is the most common way we daily dissolve organic substances/chemicals? Soap SO4SO4hydrophilic SO4hydrophobic SO4 SO4- SO4- SO4SO4SO4- High Carbon Concentration Soap Soap Soap micelle SO4SO4- SO4- Oil drop in water SO4- SO4- SO4SO4SO4- Assessing the Danger: Octanol An Important Organic Solvent: Octanol C8H18O c c c c c c c c Neutral organic chemicals are soluble in organic solvents Octanol-Water Partitioning C8H18O Octanol and water are immiscible Octanol Density: 0.824 g/cm3 octanol water C8H18O Partitioning Between Octanol and Water Carbon/hydrogen Octanol (Carbon/Hydrogen) water C10H20 Octanol-Water Partitioning Coefficient Kow = Concentration of chemical in octanol Concentration of chemical in water At equilibrium Add 10 mg chemical 1 L Octanol 1L Water separate octanol chemical water chemical Analyze the water phase for the chemical. Difference between initial amount and amount in water = amount in octanol The ratio between the two yields the Kow Add 10 mg chemical 1 L Octanol 1L Waterl separate chemical chemical 0.01 mg L Water phase 9.99 mg L octanol phase Kow = 9.99 mg L 0.01 mg L = 999 Kow of some Organochlorine Compounds DDT 4,000,000 PCBs 2,000,000 Dioxin chemical in octanol chemical in water 6,000,000 A high Kow indicates strong interaction with organic solvents and lipid tissues PCBs Kow = 2,000,000 Used as insulating fluids and coolants in electrical equipment and machinery from 1929-1977. Electrical equipment plasticizers in paints, plastics and rubber products pigments, dyes and carbonless copy paper EPA estimates that 150 million pounds of PCBs are dispersed throughout the environment, including air and water supplies; an additional 290 million pounds are located in landfills in this country some PCBs act like hormones, and other PCBs are nerve poisons PCBs were “banned” in 1979 DDT Kow = 4,000,000 first modern pesticide (Nobel Prize, 1948) used with to combat mosquitoes spreading malaria (mosquitoes), and typhus (lice) Insoluble in water. Soluble in most organic solvents, fat, and oils. Banned in 1972 (U.S.) Launch of the Environmental Movement Thinning egg shells decline in the eagle population occurred before the DDT years (bounties between 1917 and 1942) Lower hatching rates Declining Eagle population Carcinogenic primates were fed 33,000 times more DDT than the estimated exposure 1962 human volunteers ingested 35 mg of DDT http://faculty.unionky.edu/rbotkin/RECM_480_ISSUE_16A_YES_BLUE.PPT#291,22,Issue%2016:%20Yes Water Filters Simple Filtration Ion Removal Carbon (most common component) Activated Carbon Activated Activation by heating Extremely porous with high surface area: 500 m2/g Large surface area = high contact with contaminants Activated Carbon Activated Absorption: spontaneous movement of primarily organic contaminants from water to carbon matrix. Pesticides and other organics essentially dissolve in the carbon Chlorine sticks to the extensive surfaces Carbon Filter Removal 2,4-D 2.4.5-TP (Silvex) Alachlor Atrazine Carbofuran Chlordane Endrin Heptachlor Epoxide Lindane Methoxychlor Simazine Toxaphene Benzene Carbon Tetrachloride Chlorobenzene Ethylbenzene Monochlorobenzene MTBE O-Dichlorobenzene P-Dichlorobenzene Styrene Tetrachloroethene Toluene Trichloroethene VOCs Antidepressants Steroids/Hormones Prednisone, Prednisolone, Progesterone, Testosterone, Cortisol/Hydrocortisone Antibiotics Ciprooxacin, Trimethroprin, Sulfamethoxazole Anxiolytics Meprobamate Does not remove bacteria or most metals ...
View Full Document

Ask a homework question - tutors are online