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lec06.chem_separation - CHEMISTRY OF SEPARATION OUTLINE...

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CHEMISTRY OF SEPARATION
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OUTLINE Introduction Types Extraction Phase changes Electric Fields Flotation Membranes Other Chromatographic
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ANALYTICAL PROCESS Processing Interpretation Instrumentation Calibration Measurement Food Sample Sampling Pretreatment Extraction Separation Clean up Concentration Derivatization
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HOMEWORK Using the flow diagram for the analytical process, fit your research project into an analytical process. Food, biological tissue or fluid Sampling Extraction – what is the analyte? Instrumentation – what will you use to measure the analyte? How will you calibrate? Processing and interpretation
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INTRODUCTION Separation Anderson, 1987 “physical transfer of a particular chemical substance from one phase or medium to another, or the actual physical separation of the components of a mixture into separate fractions.” Meloan, 1999 “is a process whereby compounds of interest are removed from the other compounds in the sample that may react similarly and interfere with a quantitative determination.” Seader and Henley, 1998 “The separation of chemical mixtures into their constituents. Separations including enrichment, concentration, purification, refining, and isolation.”
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INTRODUCTION Separation Extraction Analysis
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PHASE Volatilization Conversion of all or part of a solid or liquid into a gas What are ways that support this conversion? Heat Strong acids Oxidation Reduction What analytical instrument uses this same principle? Gas Chromtography
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PHASE Distillation The production of a vapor from liquid by heating, condensing the vapor, and collecting in a separate vessel Vapor pressure – the pressure exerted by molecules that have escaped the liquid’s surface Molecules in the gas state are in constant motion Usually several hundred miles per hour Size, shape, and chemical properties This relates to surface tension Examples: simple, fractional
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FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION Toluene + Benzene
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FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION Plates Theoretical plates Represent each equilibrium step in the refluxing system HETP (Height Equivalent to a Theoretical Plate) Takes into account the distance from surface of liquid to the top of the column Measures the efficiency of distillation
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FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION Continuous Refluxing Total Partial
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HOMEWORK Ethyl isobutyrate (b.p. = 111C) and ethyl isovalerate (b.p. = 135C) are used for flavors and essences.
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