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Unformatted text preview: 000 Handbook of Food Processing Equipment 000 FOOD ENGINEERING SERIES Series Editor Gustavo V. Barbosa-Canovas, Washington State University Advisory Board Jose Miguel Aguilera, Pontifica Universidad Catolica de Chile Pedro Fito, Universidad Politecnica Richard W. Hartel, University of Wisconsin Jozef Kokini, Rutgers University Michael McCarthy, University of California at Davis Martin Okos, Purdue University Micha Peleg, University of Massachusetts Leo Pyle, University of Reading Shafiur Rahman, Hort Research M. Anandha Rao, Cornell University Yrjo Roos, University College Cork Walter L. Spiess, Bundesforschungsanstalt Jorge Welti-Chanes, Universidad de las Americas-Puebla Food Engineering Series Jose M. Aguilera and David W. Stanley, Microstructural Principles of Food Processing and Engineering, Second Edition (1999) Stella M. Alzamora, Maria S. Tapia, and Aurelio Lopez-Malo, Minimally Processed Fruits and Vegetables: Fundamental Aspects and Applications (2000) Gustavo Barbosa-Canovas and Humberto Vega-Mercado, Dehydration of Foods (1996) Pedro Fito, Enrique Ortega-Rodriguez, and Gustavo Barbosa-Canovas, Food Engineering 2000 (1997) p.1. Fryer, D.L. Pyle, and C.D. Rielly, Chemical Engineering for the Food Industry (1997) Richard W. Hartel, Crystallization in Foods (2001) Marc E.G. Hendrickx and Dietrich Knorr, Ultra High Pressure Treatments of Food (2002) S.D. Holdsworth, Thermal Processing of Packaged Foods (1997) Lothar Leistner and Grahame Gould, Hurdle Technologies: Combination Treatments for Food Stability, Safety, and Quality (2002) Michael 1. Lewis and Neil 1. Heppell, Continuous Thermal Processing of Foods: Pasteurization and UHT Sterilization (2000) Rosana G. Moreira, M. Elena Castell-Perez, and Maria A. Barrufet, Deep-Fat Frying: Fundamentals and Applications (1999) Rosana G. Moreira, Automatic Control for Food Processing Systems (2001) M. Anandha Rao, Rheology of Fluid and Semisolid Foods: Principles and Applications (1999) 000 Handbook of Food Processing Equipment 000 by George D. Saravacos Rutgers the State University ofNew Jersey and the National Technical University Athens, Greece and Athanasios E. Kostaropoulos Agricultural University of Athens Athens, Greece Springer Science+Business Media, LLC Library ofCongress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Saravacos, George D., 1928Handbook of food processing equipment I by George D. Saravacos and Athanasios E. Kostaropoulos. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-4613-5212-9 I. Food industry and trade-Equi pment and supplies. 664' .0028' 4--dc2 1 ISBN 978-1-4615-0725-3 (eBooi::) DOI 10.1007/978-1-4615-0725-3 I. Kostaropoulos, A. E. H. Title. TP373.S2372002 2002072776 ISBN 978-1-46 13-5212-9 <:1 2002 Springer Science+Business Media New Vork O ri gina ll y p ublished by K IlI wer I Plenum Publishers, New Vo rk in 2002 Soficoverrcprint of the hardcove r I st edition 2002 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 I A C.l.P. record for this book is available from the Library of Congress. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduccd, stored in aretrieval system, or transmitted in any fonn or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, microfilming recording, or otherwise, without written pennission from the Publisher, with the exception of any material supplied specifically for the purpose ofbeing enlered and executed on a computer system, for exclusive use by the purchaser of the work. To our wives Katie Saravacos and Sandri Kostaropouios for encouraging, supporting, and enduring Preface Recent publications in food engineering concern mainly food process engineering, which is related to chemical engineering, and deals primarily with unit operations and unit processes, as applied to the wide variety of food processing operations. Relatively less attention is paid to the design and operation of food processing equipment, which is necessary to carry out all of the food processes in the food plant. Significant technical advances on processing equipment have been made by the manufacturers, as evidenced by the efficient modem food processing plants. There is a need to relate advances in process engineering to process equipment, and vice versa. This book is an attempt to apply the established principles of transport phenomena and unit operations to the design, selection, and operation of food processing equipment. Since food processing equipment is still designed empirically, due to the complexity of the processes and the uncertainty of food properties, description of some typical industrial units is necessary to understand the operating characteristics. Approximate values and data are used for illustrative purposes, since there is an understandable lack of published industrial data. Simple diagrams are used throughout the book to illustrate the principles of construction and operation of each type of food processing equipment. Such diagrams are very useful for introducing the readers (students, scientists, engineers, and technologists) to complex industrial equipment. Detailed illustrations and pictures of processing equipment can be found in bulletins and technical information, provided by the manufacturers and suppliers. Addresses of representative suppliers of equipment are found in the directories of equipment and the international equipment exhibitions (Chapter 2), and the list of equipment suppliers (Appendix E). Although most suppliers listed are based in Europe or the United States, some other international suppliers are also included. Equipment companies are often consolidated or absorbed by multinational groups, and suppliers lists should be updated regularly. Chapter 1 serves as an introduction to the design of food process and food plant design, based on the established chemical process design, stressing the special requirements for food quality and food safety in food processing operations. Vll Vlll HANDBOOK OF FOOD PROCESSING EQUIPMENT Chapter 2 reviews the elements of mechanical and hygienic design of food processing equipment. Preliminary sizing and costing of the main processing equipment is discussed, and a preliminary cost estimate of a food processing plant is given. Numerical examples of sizing process equipment are given in various chapters of the book. For illustrative purposes, the equipment used in a citrus processing plant is considered in most calculations. Selection of food processing equipment can be made from typical suppliers, listed in the directories of Chapter 2, or in the supplier addresses of Appendix E. Chapters 3 to 11 discuss the various processing equipment on the basis of unit operations of mechanical processes, heat transfer, evaporation, dehydration, refrigeration and freezing, thermal processing, and mass transfer. Chapter 12 deals with equipment of novel food processes, such as membrane separations and supercritical extraction, and Chapter 13 covers the food packaging equipment. Appendixes at the end of the book review briefly food physical properties, food process control, and food plant utilities, and provide a list of symbols and units, conversion of technical units into the international system (SI), and a representative list of equipment suppliers. We wish to acknowledge the contributions and help of many people during the long time of collecting data and information for writing this book: our colleagues, associates, and graduate students at Rutgers University, Cornell University, National Technical University of Athens, and Agricultural University of Athens. The senior author is especially indebted to his former colleagues at Cornell University, D. Farkas and the late 1. Moyer, for recognizing the importance of food processing equipment. We both appreciate the useful information provided by various technical and management people in the food processing industry and the suppliers of processing equipment. We thank Z. Maroulis and N. Stoforos for reviewing Chapters 1 and 10, respectively, and N. Zogzas for allowing the use of his computer program of the psychrometric chart. Special thanks are due to Magda Krokida for her substantial help in preparing the numerical examples and a number of tables and figures of the book. We appreciate the help of N. Kostaras and Myrto and Amaryllis Kostaropoulos for preparing various figures of the book. We hope that this book will contribute to the recognition of food processing equipment as an important part of the developing field of food engineering. We welcome the comments and criticism of readers of the book. Any errors that might be found are unintentional. George D. Saravacos Athanasios E. Kostaropoulos Contents Chapter I-Design of Food Processes and Food Processing Plants...... I I. Introduction............................................ II. Overview of Chemical Process and Plant Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Process Flowsheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Types of Process Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. Material and Energy Balances. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. Design of Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. Plant Layout and Buildings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. Economic Analysis in ProcesslPlant Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. Fixed Capital Investment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . b. Cost of Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c. Engineering Cost Indices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. Manufacturing Cost and Profitability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. Manufacturing Cost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . b. Profitability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c. Break-Even Point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. Computer-Aided ProcesslPlant Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III. Design of Food Processes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Unit Operations in Food Processing. . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . 2. Food Process Flowsheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. Material and Energy Balances. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. Computer-Aided Food Process Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV. Food Plant Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Elements of Food Plant Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. General Aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . b. New Food Plants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i. Location...................................... ii. ProductlProcess . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii. Food Hygiene. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv. Plant Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v. Food Storage ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi. Flexibility..................................... c. Plant Improvement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . d. Plant Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 3 3 4 5 6 7 7 8 9 10 10 11 12 13 14 15 18 19 24 25 26 26 28 28 29 29 29 29 30 30 30 ix X HANDBOOK OF FOOD PROCESSING EQUIPMENT e. Mobile Food Plants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . f. Advanced Food Plants .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Good Manufacturing Practices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. GMPs............................................ b. Food Safety Programs and HACCP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. Food Plant Economics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. Overview of Food Plant Economics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . b. Economic Analysis of Food Plants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 1-1 ........................................... References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 31 32 32 33 34 34 37 38 42 Chapter 2-Design and Selection of Food Processing Equipment. • . . . . . I. Introduction............................................ II. Sizing and Costing of Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III. Materials of Construction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Metals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. Steel............................................. b. Stainless Steels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c. Aluminum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . d. Copper........................................... e. Other Metals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Plastics-Rubber. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. Glass-Ceramics.............. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. Wood............................................... IV. Fabrication of Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Strength of Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. General Aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . b. Sensitive Construction Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c. Proper Engineering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Fabrication and Installation of Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. General Process Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . b. Food Processing Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c. Installation of Process Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V. Hygienic Design of Food Processing Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Hygienic Standards and Regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Cleaning of Food Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VI. Selection of Food Processing Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Selection of Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. Construction Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i. Dimensions/Weight.............................. ii. Cleaning Facility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . iii. Maintenance................................... iv. Standardization of Spare Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v. Quality of Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VI. Firmness/Durability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii. Automation.................................... b. Operational Characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i. Reliability..................................... ii. Convenience................................... 47 47 48 50 52 53 54 54 55 55 56 56 57 57 57 57 58 59 59 59 60 61 61 62 65 66 66 66 66 66 66 67 67 67 67 67 67 68 Contents iii. Safety........................................ iv. Instrumentation................................. v. Ergonomics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi. Efficiency..................................... vii. Effectiveness................................... viii. Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix. Environmental Impact. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Testing of Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. Equipment Specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 2-1 ........................................... Directories of Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Directories of Food Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exhibitions of Food Process Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 68 68 69 69 69 69 69 70 70 73 73 74 75 Chapter 3-Mechanical Transport and Storage Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . I. Introduction............................................ II. Mechnical Transport Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Fluid Food Transport Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. Rheological Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . b. Mechanical Energy Balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c. Friction Losses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . d. Pump Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Centrifugal Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii. Positive Displacement Pumps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii. Other Pumps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv. Requirements for Food Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v. Pump Selection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e. Pump Auxiliaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i. Electric Motors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii. Mechanical Seals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . f. Process Piping and Valves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i. Piping........................................ ii. Valves........................................ g. Hygienic Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Pneumatic and Hydraulic Transport. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. Pneumatic Conveyors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . b. Hydraulic Conveyors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. Mechanical Conveyors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. a. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . b. Selection of Conveyors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. i. Uniform Belt Conveyors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii. Segmented Belt Conveyors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. iii. Roll and Skate Wheel Conveyors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. iv. Chain Conveyors . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. v. Screw Conveyors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. vi. Vibratory Conveyors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. vii. Hygienic Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 77 77 77 77 78 80 82 83 84 88 91 92 93 93 94 94 94 95 95 96 96 96 99 100 100 102 102 104 105 107 108 110 111 Xl XlI HANDBOOK OF FOOD PROCESSING EQUIPMENT III. Food Storage Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Introduction.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 2. Storage of Solids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. a. Pallets............................................ b. Box Pallets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i....
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