second law thermodynamics

second law thermodynamics - ions will start moving from...

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A chemical reaction or a physical change, is said to be spontaneous if it has the potential to proceed of its own accord under the conditions specified. The first law of thermodynamics provides no basis for determining whether or not a proposed change will occur spontaneously. The second law of thermodynamics established criteria for making such predictions. The Second law of Thermodynamics states that every spontaneous change is accompanied by an increase in entropy which is a measure of the randomness or disorder of a system. In a solid system molecules or ions are quite closely held. When the system is heated by applying external energy, molecules or
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Unformatted text preview: ions will start moving from each other subject to electrostatic repulsion or attraction. As a result, in the liquid state molecules or ions have looser arrangements or display less order than in the solid state. Hence entropy of a substance in the liquid state is always higher than that of one in the solid state. A gas has an even higher disorder than a liquid as its molecules or ions have free movements and are not constrained to be adjacent to each other. Hence the gaseous state has higher disorder and entropy. The second law of thermodynamics states that changes in an isolated system are toward higher entropy....
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