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Class+18+-+Diagnosing+Personality - Psychology 1 Psychology...

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Unformatted text preview: Psychology 1 Psychology 1 General Psychology Christopher Gade, PhD Office: 3412 Tolman Hall Office hours: Th 1:30­4:30 Email: [email protected] Class T/Th, 11:00­12:00 Wheeler Auditorium Personality Personality To effectively examine the topic of personality, one must ask a number of questions… How is an individual’s personality defined? How do we determine different personalities? Can and do our personalities change? How does personality come about? Freud and the Freud and the Psychodynamic Approach Psychodynamic theory – personality is based on the interplay of conflicting forces within the individual. This includes forces that the individual is both aware, and unaware of. Our personality is a derivative of all of experiences of our past, as well as the forces acting on the individual Abnormal personality is a result of pent up or conflicting forces within the individual What are these forces in conflict? What are these forces in conflict? the ‘id’: an unconscious force that constantly seeks satisfaction of basic needs (survival, sex, immediate gratification) The ‘superego’: an unconscious force that’s only goal is to push us to do what is ‘right’ (society’s standards) The ‘ego’: a conscious force that operates on the reality principle. It seeks to satisfy id’s and the superego’s desires in realistic ways So what causes these emotional So what causes these emotional tensions (according to Freud)? A pent up store of unconscious conflicting desires and experiences Can impact every day behavior Can also have a detrimental effect on the individual if the conflict is great enough Need to get the How do we get at these unconscious How do we get at these unconscious memories/emotions/thoughts? Psychoanalysis Free association Dream interpretation “Freudian Slips” Hypnosis Video on later found benefits (11:00) The Source of Most Problems The Source of Most Problems Freud eventually went on to argue that children of all ages have some form of sexual tension that causes most irregular behaviors. This tension was a result of libido (psychosexual energy), that comes in different forms during development. Freud’s Psychosexual Stages Stage Focus Oral (0-18 months) Anal (18-36 months) Pleasure centers on the mouth-sucking, biting, chewing Pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination; coping with demands for control smoking, overeating stinginess strict orderliness Phallic (3-6 years) Pleasure zone is the genitals; coping with incestuous sexual feelings penis envy castration fear Latency (6 to puberty) Genital (puberty on) Dormant sexual feelings Maturation of sexual interests Fixation So how do normal people deal with these So how do normal people deal with these tensions and desires that we can’t alleviate? According to Freud, in order to deal with the tensions between our id, ego, and superego, we develop defense mechanisms. These defense mechanisms help keep us sane, while alleviating (at least temporarily) the stress of the conflicting tensions. Freud’s Different Defense Mechanisms Freud’s Different Defense Mechanisms Repression Denial Rationalization Displacement Regression Projection Reaction Formation Sublimation Name the Defense Mechanism! Name 1. You are in love with your best friend’s new flame. The friendship is an old one and very valuable to you. You tell everybody that your friend’s new love interest is a terrible human being and you don’t understand the attraction at all. 2. Your boss yells at you. You come home and yell at your spouse. Your spouse yells at your child. Your child goes out to the yard and yells at the dog. 3. Your ex-spouse, who cheated on you, writes a bestselling nonfiction book arguing that human beings are not naturally monogamous and have an instinctive need for variety. Summing Up Freud Summing Up Freud Freud stressed that our personality was a direct product of our unconscious thoughts and desires, and our conscious manifestations of the attempt to alleviate these desires Most of our unconscious desires are focused on sexual energy (libido) and past sexual experiences Abnormal behavior is the product of extremely So what can we take from Freud? So what can we take from Freud? Humans apparently have a mental life that is at least partly unconscious People often have conflicting motives and desires Childhood experiences contribute to the development of adult personality and social behavior Sexual development has an impact on psychological development Where was Freud just dead wrong? Where was Freud just dead wrong? Unconscious thoughts defined by Freud are very different from today’s theories of unconscious Its not all about sex and psychosexual stages (if these stages even exist) Almost all (if not all) forms of mental disorders have been only weakly linked to childhood experiences Moving On… Moving On… In our next class, we’ll discuss some other THEORIES about personality. Then, in the following class, we’ll look at some of the more current research on the topic. ...
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