Class+19+-+Other+Personality+Theories

Class+19+-+Other+Personality+Theories - Psychology 1...

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Unformatted text preview: Psychology 1 Psychology 1 General Psychology Christopher Gade, PhD Office: 3412 Tolman Hall Office hours: Th 1:30­4:30 Email: gadecj@berkeley.edu Class T/Th, 11:00­12:00 Wheeler Auditorium Personality Personality To effectively examine the topic of personality, one can ask a number of questions… How is an individual’s personality defined? How do we determine different personalities? Can and do our personalities change? How does personality come about? Then and now with theories… Then and now with theories… In the first part of this section, we began discussing personality psychology by discussing the theories proposed by Sigmund Freud Now we’ll be continuing our exploration of personality psychology be examining other theories of where personality comes from Carl Jung (1875­1961) Carl Jung (1875­1961) Colleague of Freud’s for a long time (heir apparent) Accepted many of Freud’s beliefs about the formation of personality Personality is formed from both conscious and unconscious forces Our past experiences have an impact on our personalities Broke with Freud’s work because of his differing beliefs about personality formation (messy “brake­up”) Our personal unconscious did not contain the basic instincts that Freud proposed (primarily the id) Our look toward the future and striving for goals is equally important People possess personality traits as a result of a collective unconscious Archetypes – vague, existential, and spiritual images/concepts found within our personality. Some archetypes are inherited from the experiences of our ancestors, others are unique to the individual. Alfred Adler’s Alfred Adler’s Superiority Theory Another early student of Freud’s, but broke away because of differing theories (too much focus on sex) Formed a branch of psychology called individual psychology Individual psychology – a psychology of the person as a whole rather than a person in separate parts (id/ego/supergo) Believed that personality was based on our attempts to pursue our strengths and make up for our shortcomings Striving for superiority – a desire to seek personal excellence and fulfillment Inferiority complex – an exaggerated feeling of weakness, inadequacy, and helplessness Carl Rogers’ & Humanistic Psych Carl Rogers’ & Humanistic Psych Formed theory that was very similar in structure to Adler’s theory of striving for superiority Postulated that people are constantly striving for betterment and to reach a point of accurate self representation and a point self actualization Self­actualization – the achievement of one’s full potential (note: self­actualization is said to rarely be met by individuals) Actual self – the person that we are Ideal self – the person that we want to be Aught self – the person that we feel we “should” be (not Rogers’ idea) Maslow was another humanist. He believed in the concept of self­ actualization. However, he proposed that self­ actualization and our sense of self was focused on another mechanism… the fulfillment of needs. Maslow proposed that each of us has a hierarchy of needs, and once all of those needs are met, we are able to approach self­actualization. Abraham Maslow’s Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs What does it mean to be self actualized? What does it mean to be self actualized? According to humanists (Rogers and Maslow), once a person reaches self actualization, a number of recognizable behaviors take shape. Unconditional positive regard An accurate perception of reality Independence, creativity, and spontaneity Acceptance of oneself and others Enjoyment of life A good sense of humor ***Note: Skeptics have questions whether or not this was a sign of self­actualization, or just a list of characteristics that Rogers and Maslow valued. George Alexander Kelly George Alexander Kelly • • Like Freud, Rogers, Jung, etc, examined the whole person (through clinical experiences) After clinical interactions, and observations of teacher biases in reports of student “laziness”, began to believe that “constructs” were the basis of personality – Constructs – personality structures, perceptions of behaviors and events, and other concepts of the environment that come from experience and are used to interpret/interact with the world – • Note: he admitted that some things were less ambiguous (a tree is a tree) than others (a weirdo is…?) Argued that we are all scientists at heart, testing our environment in an attempt to try to understand, interpret, and predict the world around us • • Individuals are still actively engaging their environment, trying to predict outcomes However, in social­ cognition we’re also modeling behavior based on our interpretations of the social environment – • “Social learning” and “social cognition” In essence, we’re interacting with our environment to obtain things that we learn to Social Cognition: Social Cognition: Adding to Kelly The Big Social­ The Big Social­ Cognitive Theorists Albert Bandura We learn from the environment to develop our personality related behaviors (modeling) Bobo doll experiments The Other Big Theorist The Other Big Theorist • Walter Mischel – – Student of George Kelly (cognitive approach) Stressed the dynamics of the situation in personality Expectations of results from behaviors – Interpretations of the situation – – Stressed the concept of competencies Competencies – the skill sets available to deal with social situations – Example: Introverts react shyly because of their set of skills that they possess to deal with social – More on Competencies More on Competencies Responses can be learned through personal experience or vicarious experiences Bandura’s monkey phobia experiment Competencies can also be related to skills of inactivity and carry over Mischel’s delay of Summing Things Up Summing Things Up All of the theorists that we’ve covered today have a number of things in common They all look for the explanations to why each of us are unique and consistent in our behaviors They all stress that the past and our focus on the future shape our personality They all believe that our conscious mind plays a big role in our development of this personality Moving on… Moving on… In the next class, we’ll look at some other more scientific views of where personality comes from and finally define this concept We’ll also examine the topic of traits and how we measure them Make sure that you’ve done your readings, and we’ll see you then ...
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