Class+21+-+Defining+Abnormal

Class+21+-+Defining+Abnormal - Psychology 1 Psychology...

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Unformatted text preview: Psychology 1 Psychology General Psychology Christopher Gade, PhD Office: 3412 Tolman Hall Office hours: Th 1:30-4:30 Email: gadecj@berkeley.edu Class T/Th, 11:00-12:00 Class Wheeler Auditorium Defining “Abnormal” Defining In today’s class, we’ll begin our discussion on the In topic of abnormal psychology topic To start things, I thought we’d play a… game We’re going to pretend that you’re a therapist and We’re you’re interviewing a person for the first time. You need to determine: You Is this person’s behavior/thought pattern abnormal Is this person a danger to himself/herself Should this person seek therapy John P John John has recently developed a debilitating fear for his life. John He sees every stranger on the street as a possible threat to his life, and is constantly vigilant for any behavior around him that might be reflective of hostility. He has also developed a desperate need to remove himself from his surroundings whenever possible. Whereby, he hides himself in his room, the only place he feels mildly safe nowadays. This fear of his environment has resulted in John lashing out at times, and has caused him to almost hurt several innocent bystanders that have passed him on the street. John is so distraught by his new life. He is thinking of running away. Running away from the fear and the threat of violence. from Gary C Gary Gary is so very tired. He’s been off to war for longer Gary than he can remember. He sees death and pain all around him. Even in his dreams Gary encounters gunfight and tragedy. He tries to stay as calm as possible in this horrid environment that he finds himself in, but Gary is always on edge, and always prepared to fight, or even kill, at only a moment’s notice. Anything can set him off, but Gary understands that this is how it must be in this world. He just hopes that some day, he can go home. He Susan O Susan Susan is a 33 year old mother of three. She lives in a small, Susan suburban home with her loving husband and children. Susan has a lucrative and promising job at her local bank, and has been climbing the ladder of success for years. Susan has also recently learned that she is the daughter of God and the messenger of his renewed communication with mankind. However, with the understanding of the dangers associated with this status, Susan is aware of the fact that this truth can never be revealed to anyone. So in her free time, Susan writes alone in solitude. These writing look like letters, but they are in fact a message, THE message from her heavenly father. That way, one day, long from now, God’s message will be heard by all, and mankind will be saved. will Outcome 1 Susan O, devoted mother, Susan grandmother, and wife, was found dead today in her assisted living apartment. Family members and friends gathered to mourn the loss of this beloved and generous woman. “It was as if she was a direct descendent of our Lord” one mourner remarked, drawing upon the quirky, but heartfelt and selfless life that this great woman led. Susan O will remain in all of our hearts for generations to come. for Outcome 2 A family of five was discovered in their house early yesterday morning. All but one of the bodies were found mutilated on the floor of their kitchen. The fifth body, belonging to a woman named Susan O, was found in the front lawn, with a gunshot wound to the head. In her hands were the gun that was used in the attack, a collection of scribbled notes containing unintelligible communications and ramblings, and a letter stating that her actions were the work of God. actions Defining “Abnormal Behavior” Defining Any behavior that leads to Any distress (including distress to others), disability (impaired functioning), or an increased risk of death, pain, or loss of freedom. freedom. APA A display of undesirable display thoughts and behaviors that is significantly different from the average and interferes with one’s life. one’s Textbook Examples of “Abnormal Behavior? Examples Professional football players? Glenn Beck? Martin Luther King Jr.? President Obama? The soldier from the first The example? example? The Influence of Culture and Others The To determine if one’s behavior is “abnormal”, we To must also examine the culture that the behavior is occurring in: occurring Professional wrestlers Female “demonic possessions” in Sudan “brain fag” syndrome in sub-Saharan Africa Different cultures also may illicit certain Different “abnormal” behaviors through their customs and shared learning. shared “multiple personalities” in the US (1960’s-1980’s) Children stabbing incidents in China The Many Roles of Therapists The Detect individuals that are displaying “abnormal Detect behavior” based on a number of factors behavior” Identify cases where these individuals will be a Identify danger to the community danger Describe and define the abnormal behaviors of Describe the individuals that were detected the Identify the source of the abnormal behaviors Provide help for the individuals (next class) Looking for the Cause to Disorders: The Bio-Psycho-Social Perspective The Most psychologists today believe that abnormal behavior Most is the result of biological, sociocultural, and/or psychological factors that combine and interact psychological Defining Specific Abnormal Behaviors Defining Early Attempts: Early List of characteristics based on case studies Think Freud, Jung, Adler, etc. Individual definitions New Attempts: Uniform definitions and standards for diagnosis Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Diagnostic (DSM) (DSM) The DSM is currently in its 4th edition It is intended to list the “accepted labels” for all identified It psychological disorders and describes their most widely used and beneficial treatments used The Parts Of the DSM-IV The Axis 1 – Psychological Disorders Temporary disorders that are the main focus of Temporary treatment treatment Examples: depression, anxiety disorders, anorexia, Examples: ADHD, autism ADHD, Axis 2 – Personality Disorders and Mental Axis Retardation Retardation Long-lasting problems that deal more with an Long-lasting individual’s whole self individual’s Examples: narcissism, antisocial personality, obsessive Examples: compulsive, mentally retardation compulsive, The Parts of the DSM-IV (cont.) The Axis 3 – General Medical Conditions Axis 4 – Psychosocial and Environmental Axis Problems Problems Lists medical problems that might interact with Lists treatment options treatment Lists medications that might interact with treatment Lists options (especially drug treatments) options Lists environmental and social stressors that are either Lists causing or exacerbating disorders causing Axis 5 – Global Assessment of Functioning 1-100, with 100 being fully functional More on Axis 5 More 91 - 100 Superior functioning in a wide range of activities. No symptoms. 81 - 90 Absent or minimal symptoms (e.g., mild anxiety in an exam), good functioning. no more than everyday problems or concerns. 71 - 80 If symptoms are present, they are transient and expected (e.g., difficulty concentrating after argument); no more than slight impairment in social, occupational, or school functioning. 61 - 70 Some mild symptoms (e.g., depressed mood) OR some difficulty in social, occupational, or school functioning , but generally functioning pretty well 51 - 60 Moderate symptoms (e.g., panic attacks) OR moderate difficulty in social, occupational, or school functioning (e.g., few friends, conflicts with peers or co-workers). 41 - 50 Serious symptoms (e.g., suicidal ideation) OR any serious impairment in social, occupational, or school functioning . 31 - 40 Some impairment in reality testing or communication OR major impairment in several areas, such as work or school, family relations, judgment, thinking, or mood. several 21 - 30 Behavior is considerably influenced by delusions or hallucinations OR serious impairment, in communication or judgment OR inability to function in almost all areas 11 - 20 Some danger of hurting self or others OR occasionally fails to maintain minimal personal hygiene OR gross impairment in communication . 1 - 10 Persistent danger of severely hurting self or others OR persistent inability to maintain personal hygiene OR serious suicidal act with clear expectation of death. Problems with the DSM Problems Differentiating normal from abnormal (most Differentiating people often fall on a continuum of sanity, not into a category) not “We’re all a little ‘crazy’” We’re little The manifestation of disorders often vary The across individual (both in the intensity and the symptoms of the disorder), the DSM doesn’t take this into account. doesn’t An X number of symptoms are required Symptoms must last X number of months Other Problems with the DSM Other A number of the disorders and number classifications are extremely arbitrary Situational factors are often not taken Situational into account into Break-up, death, job stability, etc. Almost anyone seeking help is Almost diagnosed with a mental disorder diagnosed Homosexuality example Autism and Aspergers example 50% statistic from the textbook The DSM only detects disorders, it The doesn’t tell us everything important about the individuals being diagnosed about But regardless of its shortcomings… But The DSM is used in almost every reputable clinic The and by almost every reputable clinician today and It has provided us with a time saving, extremely It effective way of diagnosing and treating mental disorders disorders It is continually adapting and changing in order to It be more accurate, effective, and reflective of our society and the mental disorders that are described within it within There is no sign that we will discontinue the use of There this manual in the near future this Moving On… Moving Now that we’ve discussed how we define and Now diagnose abnormal behavior, we’re going to move onto our next topic—How we attempt to treat abnormal behavior treat Please come to our next class having read 15.2 Also, please note that your paper 3’s are due Also, NEXT WEEK in sections, so get started on those NEXT And finally, RPP is due soon. If you’re not done And already, get your credits take care of ASAP already, ...
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