Class+23+-+Anxiety+and+Mood+Disorders

Class+23+-+Anxiety+and+Mood+Disorders - Psychology 1...

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Unformatted text preview: Psychology 1 Psychology 1 General Psychology Christopher Gade, PhD Office: 3412 Tolman Hall Office hours: Th 1:30­4:30 Email: gadecj@berkeley.edu Class T/Th, 11:00­12:00 Wheeler Auditorium The remaining classes… The remaining classes… In the final two classes of the course, we’ll be discussing three major disorder groups. – Anxiety disorders – Mood disorders – Schizophrenia Anxiety Disorders Anxiety Disorders Anxiety disorders involve an intense experience of anxiety and a series of efforts to deal with it Four major categories of anxiety disorders: – Generalized Anxiety Disorder – Panic Disorder – Phobias – Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Generalized Anxiety Disorder Generalized Anxiety Disorder Is found in 5­6% of the population Involves a pervasive and free floating anxiety Affected people feel continuously tense and jittery, worried, and suffer from sleeplessness Antidepressant medication & relaxation training have been shown to be effective treatments Panic Disorder Panic Disorder 1­3% of the population are diagnosed with this disorder at some time in their life Identified by the occurrence of frequent panic attacks – Panic attacks: minutes­long episodes of intense fear that something awful is going to happen. These attacks feature… heart palpitations shortness of breath choking sensations trembling Repeated incidences lead to fear of ‘panic attack’, and thus a panic disorder and associated phobias, i.e. agoraphobia Antidepressants and behavior therapy are common treatments Age and time also are associated with a decrease in panic disorder occurrence rates Phobias Phobias Afflicts 11% of the population during their lifetime and 5­6% at any time Fears are identified as a phobia when anxiety or irrational fear of a particular object or situation are extreme enough to interfere with everyday living There is evidence for a genetic link in the predisposition for developing phobias, (some life experience usually must occur to cause the phobia) Behavioral therapy that have been shown to ameliorate phobias Pharmacological therapy for phobias include tranquilizers and antidepressant drugs Some theories for the cause of phobias: – We might be evolutionarily ‘primed’ for fear of some and situations Snakes versus electricity – Our fears of certain objects or situations are based on amount of safe vs. scary exposures Spiders versus automobiles – People are also more prone to develop phobias of objects or situations that they cannot predict or control Sharks Phobias (cont) Phobias (cont) Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Found in 2­3% of the population Repetitive, irresistible acts (compulsions) performed to alleviate an ongoing anxious stream of thought (obsessions) with such persistence that they interfere with normal life activities Typically found in average, hard working perfectionists Some evidence for genetic contribution to OCD, especially in patients that develop OCD before 18 yrs Most OCD individuals improve with or without treatment over time Exposure therapy is often used: present the OCD person with a situation which facilitates the obsessions and prevent them from performing the compulsions to demonstrate that nothing catastrophic will occur Overview Overview All of the different disorders discussed in this portion all classified under the anxiety disorders category in the DSM Each has its own prevalence, defining characteristics, and causes/solutions However, when looking at these disorders, they are all considered very similar by most clinical psychologists Mood Disorders Mood Disorders Mood disorders all involve long­term problems with basic emotions All but one of the most prevalent mood disorders are associated with a negative, unpleasant mood There are a number of mood disorders that exist, with one being the most prevalent and well known – – – – Depression Seasonal Affective Disorder Dysthymia Bipolar Disorder Depression Depression 5% of population is diagnosed in a given year, 10­20% in their lifetime Multiple symptoms associated with the diagnosis of this disorder – feeling little interest in pursuing anything – little pleasure derived from any activity Also associated with – A feeling of powerlessness, guilt, & worthlessness – Suicidal ideation and attempts – sleep abnormalities Depression (cont.) Depression (cont.) Depression is a family and genetic linked disorder Life events contribute to the emergence of depression Women are diagnosed with depression about twice as much Treatments for depression: – regular sleep and exercise for mild to moderate depression – ECT (no statistical proof of efficacy, but used for major depression) – placebo – drug interventions – psychotherapies Few people remain permanently depressed However, once someone has experienced an episode of depression, they often have a higher likelihood of suffering from depressive episodes in the future Moving on… Moving on… In the next class, we’ll revisit the topic of mood disorders We’ll also examine a third common type of disorder, schizophrenia See you then ...
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