Class+24+-+Mood+Disorders+and+Schizophrenia - Psychology 1...

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Unformatted text preview: Psychology 1 Psychology 1 General Psychology Christopher Gade, PhD Office: 3412 Tolman Hall Office hours: Th 1:30­4:30 Email: [email protected] Class T/Th, 11:00­12:00 Wheeler Auditorium The remaining class… The remaining class… In the final class of the course, we’ll be discussing two of remaining major disorder groups – Mood disorders – Schizophrenia Mood Disorders Mood Disorders Mood disorders all involve long­term problems with basic emotions All but one of the most prevalent mood disorders are associated with a negative, unpleasant mood There are a number of mood disorders that exist, with one being the most prevalent and well known – – – – Depression Seasonal Affective Disorder Dysthymia Bipolar Disorder Seasonal Affective Disorder Seasonal Affective Disorder and Dysthymia Seasonal Affective Disorder – – – – Associated with the change of seasons Symptoms are similar to those of depression, but to a milder extent Light therapy is a popular treatment for this disorder Prevalence of disorder depends upon location approx 1% of Floridians Approx 9­10% of Minnesotans Dysthymia – – – – Symptoms are similar to those of depression Much less severe symptoms Lasts much longer than depression (2 years before diagnosis) Not considered traumatic at any given time, but can be very debilitating through its long­term effects Bipolar Disorder Bipolar Disorder AKA manic depressive disorder Found in only 1% of the population involves a person alternating between feeling depressed and feeing manic: constantly active and uninhibited, excited or irritable Two forms of bipolar disorder – Bipolar Type I (at least one manic episode) – Bipolar Type II (hypomania) Twin studies suggest a genetic component to Bipolar Disorder Treatments include Lithium and anticonvulsants Overview Overview Depression, SAD, Dysthymia, and Bipolar Disorder are all classified under the same category in the DSM (affective disorders) Each again has its own prevalence, defining characteristics, and causes/solutions But… just like with anxiety disorders, when looking at these disorders, they are all considered very similar by most clinical psychologists Schizophrenia Schizophrenia What it is NOT: multiple personality disorder, sociopathy, or antisocial personality disorder What it is: a severe disconnect with reality with many cognitive and emotional symptoms – Affects about 1% of the population – Almost identical incidence in men & women (7:5 ratio has been found in recent studies) – Onset is usually sometime between 16 and 25 yrs old (later for women) Diagnosis of Schizophrenia Diagnosis of Schizophrenia The DSM­IV diagnosis of schizophrenia requires that the person exhibit a complete deterioration of daily activities along with at least two of the following symptoms: – Hallucinations – Delusions or thought disorders – Incoherent speech – Grossly disorganized behavior – Loss of normal emotional responses and social behaviors Note: If the hallucinations or delusions are severe enough, no other symptoms are required in the diagnosis of this disorder More on the symptoms… More on the symptoms… Schizophrenia symptoms are categorized into two groups – Positive Symptoms: behaviors that are present, or added to the persons repertoire of behavior as a result of the schizophrenia – Negative Symptoms: behaviors that are diminished, or absent from the persons repertoire of behavior as a result of the schizophrenia Positive Symptoms Positive Symptoms Hallucinations: perceiving things that are not there (auditory and visual) – Auditory hallucinations are much more common that visual ones – Note: Almost all of us occasionally have auditory (any maybe visual) hallucinations. Schizophrenics are distinguished by the frequency and complexity of these hallucinations. Delusions: very rigid false or unfounded beliefs – persecution: others (groups and individuals) are conspiring against or persecuting the individual (e.g. “they’re after me”) – grandiose: unusual importance (e.g. pregnancy ‘flicks’) – reference: interpreting messages as if they were meant for oneself (codes in the newspaper headlines) – bizarre: random delusions that don’t fall under any of the previous categories (some of my vital organs are missing) Negative Symptoms Negative Symptoms Flat affect: blunted expression of emotion, e.g. mask­like face, flat voice, poor eye contact Anhedonia: Diminished ability to experience pleasure, e.g. report little enjoyment in life, seek out few enjoyable activities Social withdrawal Inattentiveness, thought blocking (a particularly abrupt or complete interruption of thought) Disorganized Symptoms Disorganized Symptoms Disorganized speech: – severe tangentiality – loose associations – derailment of thought Disorganized behavior: – catatonic behavior – unusual postures Genetic Theorized Causes Theorized Causes – Twin studies suggest a genetic component in susceptibility for schizophrenia – No single gene has been linked to schizophrenia Brain abnormality/malformation – the hippocampus and parts of the cerebral cortex are a little smaller than normal, the cerebral ventricles are larger than normal, the neurons are smaller there are fewer synapses in the prefrontal cortex – Is this a causal or correlational relationship? The neurodevelopmental hypothesis – schizophrenia is the result of nervous system impairments that develop before and/or around the time of birth – Caused partially though genetics, but also through environmental influences: poor prenatal care difficult pregnancy and labor mother’s exposure to influenza virus Treatments Treatments Medication: Antipsychotic or neuroleptic drugs These all relieve symptoms for at least a little while Some block dopamine synapses in the brain, others effect glutamate concentration – Most in the past produced unpleasant side effects: tardive dyskenesia – – Hospitalization: useful for only acute episodes Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT): – Hallucinations: help patients perceive distinctions between internal/external – Delusions: treat self­esteem or other psychological issues – Flat affect: increase social skills – Anhedonia: increase activities Drug Treatment Success Drug Treatment Success Most treatments provide temporary success almost immediately (full effects usually emerge within 1 month) Over the long run, success rates wane greatly Success rates are highly associated with the intensity of the symptoms pre­treatment, and the time between onset and treatment of the disorder The end of the deterioration of the brain after drugs are introduced is still something being explored THE END THE END This marks the end of the lectures for this class We have one more meeting, and that’s to take the fourth exam Reminders: – The exam is NOT cumulative – The exam is on Thursday, May 12th at 8:00 AM – To take the test, you cannot be more than 5 minutes late Good luck in your studies ...
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This note was uploaded on 08/01/2011 for the course PSYC 132 taught by Professor Phillip during the Spring '11 term at Arkansas.

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