Pesticides

Pesticides - What you can do with a degree in an...

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What you can do with a degree in an environmental science: Examples from the field Susan E. Kegley, Ph.D. [email protected] www.pesticideresearch.com
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Overview Risk assessment basics A failure of risk assessment: Approval of methyl iodide, a new fumigant pesticide A success of risk assessment: Using risk assessment to develop a web-based tool for farmers to reduce pesticide risks
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Risk Assessment Hazard Assessment: What are the inherent hazards of a chemical? Exposure Assessment: What is the anticipated exposure? Risk Assessment: Does anticipated exposure exceed a level of concern? Risk Management: What steps can be taken to reduce the risk below a level of concern?
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Hazard Assessment Manufacturer studies on lab animals provide information on the types of toxicity caused by the chemical. No Observed Adverse Effect Levels (NOAELs) for different toxicity endpoints -Animals are given a range of doses -Highest dose that does not result in observable adverse effects is called the “No Observed Adverse Effect Level”or NOAEL -Unit: mg of chemical per kg of body weight (mg/kg)
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Uncertainty Factors Manufacturer studies on lab animals provide No Observed Adverse Effect Levels (NOAELs) for different toxicity endpoints Uncertainty factors used to account for unknowns in the toxicology of the chemical to humans
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Uncertainty Factors Manufacturer studies on lab animals provide No Observed Adverse Effect Levels (NOAELs) for different toxicity endpoints Uncertainty factors Interspecies UF: 10 - fold Not the same
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Uncertainty Factors Manufacturer studies on lab animals provide No Observed Adverse Effect Levels (NOAELs) for different toxicity endpoints Uncertainty factors. Interspecies UF: 10 -fold Intraspecies UF: 10 -fold Not the same
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Uncertainty Factors Manufacturer studies on lab animals provide No Observed Adverse Effect Levels (NOAELs) for different toxicity endpoints Uncertainty factors Interspecies UF: 10 -fold Intraspecies UF: 10 -fold Child protection UF: 10 -fold Not the same
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How much is too much? Manufacturer studies on lab animals provide No Observed Adverse Effect Levels (NOAELs) for different toxicity endpoints Uncertainty factors are incorporated Reference Dose (RfD) = NOAEL (mg/kg-day) 10 inter x 10 intra x (10 child )
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Human Hazard Quotients HAZARD QUOTIENTS ratio of estimated exposures to the RfDs HQ = exposure estimate RfD Risk assessments are only as good as the RfDs. When data are sparse, more caution is warranted. HUMANS: Pesticide Research Institute HQ > 1 adverse effects may occur 1 > HQ > 0.1 adverse effects possible in vulnerable groups HQ < 0.1 adverse effects unlikely for toxicity types studied
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Ecological Hazard Assessment LC 50 or NOELs provide a measure of acute or chronic toxicity One species is generally used as a surrogate for all species in a taxa group, e.g., Daphnia used to represent all invertebrates One taxa group is often used as a surrogate for others, e.g., fish are used to represent amphibians
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This note was uploaded on 08/01/2011 for the course PSYC 132 taught by Professor Phillip during the Spring '11 term at Arkansas.

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Pesticides - What you can do with a degree in an...

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