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Study_Guide_14[1] - Dharmatej Mikkilineni AP European...

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Dharmatej Mikkilineni AP European History Due Date 10/2/06 Period 2 Chapter 14: Reform and Renewal in the Christian Church Review Questions 1. What were some of the signs of disorder within the early sixteenth-century church? What impact did church wealth have on the condition of the church? The three main disorders of the church were clerical immortality, clerical ignorance, and clerical pluralism with problems of absenteeism. Since the church was not wealthy, many religious monks wanted more money, of which they gained using benefices, and pluralism. (pg. 451) 2. What were some of the signs of religious vitality in fifteenth- and early- sixteenth-century society? Some signs came form religious leaders. Pius II, a deeply learned and tireless worker enjoyed lover stories and Latin poetry. Sixtus IV built the famous Sistine Chapel, and supported artists. Innocent VIII made the papal court a model of luxury and scandal. Pope Alexander VI allowed prevalence of intrigue, sexual promiscuity, and supposed poisonings. Pope Julius II donned military armor and led the fight against the French. Pope Leo X became a great patron of the arts. All of these men had nothing to do with religious authority, but something else entirely. (pg. 453) 3. What circumstances prompted Luther to post his Ninety-five Theses? The church handing out indulgences, that saved people from purgatory in hell, was complete bullshit to Luther. He did not think that a piece of paper would rid all of his sins from himself. Then he published the Ninety-five Theses, which further explain his belief of the undetermined seriousness of the sacrament of penance with indulgences. (pg.’s 454-456) 4. Describe the practice of indulgence selling. What authority did Luther question and on what argument did he base his position? Indulgences were supposed to save you from hell by removing your sins. They were used by the church as a way to gain money, and still have the public feel religious at the same time, or so Luther thought. He challenged the authority of the church and why it did charge money for the indulgences, when it could also hand them out free. This caused controversy among the people and they stopped buying the indulgences, causing Rome to condemn Luther as a heretic. (pg.’s 454-456) 5. What were Luther’s answers, as delineated in the Confession of Augsburg, to the four basic theological issues? To the first question of how can a person be saved, Luther answered that salvation comes by faith alone, and that it is the arbitrary decision of God, irrespective of the sacraments or the good works. To the second question of where does religious authority reside, he answered that the authority rests in the Word of God as revealed in the bible alone, and urged
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people to read and reflect on the scriptures. To the third question of what is church, Luther re-emphasized the Catholic teaching that Church consists of the entire community of Christian believers. To the fourth question of what is the
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