Chapter 15: The Age of European Expansion and Religious Wars
In what ways and why were the wars of the late sixteenth century different
from the earlier medieval wars?
The wars of the sixteenth century were
different then the medieval wars due to many reasons. One was that the armies
were much larger than the medieval ones, consisting of about fifty thousand men.
Two, the use of gunpowder altered the nature of war and popular attitudes toward
it. Three, guns, and cannons could kill people from far distances, and were
referred to as a coward’s weapon. Four, the governments’ utilized propaganda,
pulpits, and the printing press to arouse public opinion to support the war. The
wars of the sixteenth century were continuations of struggles between the
centralizing goals of monarchies and the feudal reactions of the nobilities, while
some wars were crusading battles between Protestants and Catholics, and other
wars were struggles for national independence or for international expansion. (pg.
Describe the Portuguese explorations. Who were the participants and what
were their motives?
One Portuguese explorer was Prince Henry who had
expeditions on the west coast of Africa to study the geography. Another was
Bartholomew Diaz, who rounded the Capt of Good Hope for God and His
Majesties satisfaction. Another was Vasco de Gamma who reached India to get
more trade and commerce. (pg. 503 and pg. 505)
What role did Antwerp and Amsterdam play in international commerce?
important trading center, Antwerp, controlled by the Spanish Habsburgs,
developed a great entrepôt for overseas bullion, and Portuguese Spices, and
served as the commercial and financial capitol of Europe. Then at the end of the
century, Amsterdam overtook Antwerp and became the financial capitol of
Europe. (pg. 510)
Why was there such severe inflation in the sixteenth century?
Since the Thirty
Years’ War destroyed Germany’s commerce and economic areas catastrophically,
the only way for the king to fix the country was to raise taxes, increase labor
while decreasing pay, and taking away farmers lands fir industrial purposes. (pg.
What role did technology play in European expansion?
developments were the key to Europe’s remarkable outreach. The achievements
they made were of the cannon, of the galley, of the caravel, of the magnetic
compass, and of the astrolabe. The role they played was to steadily improve sea
charts about distance, sea depth, general geography, and increase the victory
factor of war (with the cannon). (pg. ‘s 505-506)