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Study_Guide_15[1] - Chapter 15 The Age of European...

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Chapter 15: The Age of European Expansion and Religious Wars Review Questions 1. In what ways and why were the wars of the late sixteenth century different from the earlier medieval wars? The wars of the sixteenth century were different then the medieval wars due to many reasons. One was that the armies were much larger than the medieval ones, consisting of about fifty thousand men. Two, the use of gunpowder altered the nature of war and popular attitudes toward it. Three, guns, and cannons could kill people from far distances, and were referred to as a coward’s weapon. Four, the governments’ utilized propaganda, pulpits, and the printing press to arouse public opinion to support the war. The wars of the sixteenth century were continuations of struggles between the centralizing goals of monarchies and the feudal reactions of the nobilities, while some wars were crusading battles between Protestants and Catholics, and other wars were struggles for national independence or for international expansion. (pg. 487) 2. Describe the Portuguese explorations. Who were the participants and what were their motives? One Portuguese explorer was Prince Henry who had expeditions on the west coast of Africa to study the geography. Another was Bartholomew Diaz, who rounded the Capt of Good Hope for God and His Majesties satisfaction. Another was Vasco de Gamma who reached India to get more trade and commerce. (pg. 503 and pg. 505) 3. What role did Antwerp and Amsterdam play in international commerce? An important trading center, Antwerp, controlled by the Spanish Habsburgs, developed a great entrepôt for overseas bullion, and Portuguese Spices, and served as the commercial and financial capitol of Europe. Then at the end of the 16 th century, Amsterdam overtook Antwerp and became the financial capitol of Europe. (pg. 510) 4. Why was there such severe inflation in the sixteenth century? Since the Thirty Years’ War destroyed Germany’s commerce and economic areas catastrophically, the only way for the king to fix the country was to raise taxes, increase labor while decreasing pay, and taking away farmers lands fir industrial purposes. (pg. 502) 5. What role did technology play in European expansion? Technological developments were the key to Europe’s remarkable outreach. The achievements they made were of the cannon, of the galley, of the caravel, of the magnetic compass, and of the astrolabe. The role they played was to steadily improve sea charts about distance, sea depth, general geography, and increase the victory factor of war (with the cannon). (pg. ‘s 505-506)
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6. What were the major reasons for European expansion in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries? Some major reasons for expansion in Europe were due to interest in cosmography, natural history, and geography. The quasi-scientific literature about Africa, Asia, and the Americas astounded the literate Europeans.
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