Study_Guide_18[1] - Chapter 18: Toward a New World View...

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Chapter 18: Toward a New World View Review Questions 1. Contrast the old Aristotelian-medieval world-view with that of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. What were the contributions of Copernicus, Brahe, Kepler, Galileo, and Newton? What is meant by Newton's "synthesis"? The Aristotelian worldview said that a motionless Earth was fixed at the center of the universe, and that everything revolved around it. Copernicus’s ideas were opposite to Aristotle saying that the Earth moves and that the Sun is fixed at the center of the universe. Brahe believed that both Copernicus and Aristotle were right. He thought that the planets moved around the sun, but then the Sun and the planets as a group move around the Earth. Kepler believed Copernicus about the Sun being the center, and mathematically was able to prove the precise location of the Sun, which was at the center. Galileo also sided with Copernicus, and calculated the speed or motion in an orbit around the Sun for the planets based off Kepler’s calculation of where the sun is. Newton definitely agreed with a sun- centered universe, and was able to prove it through his “synthesis”. This was a combination of everyone’s ideas, to form the Law of Universal Gravitation. This stated that everyone is attached to everybody else, and that the whole universe is one majestic system. Therefore, Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, and Newton all were opposite to Aristotle’s view. Brahe on the other hand believed Aristotle and all of the new ideas in a mixed theory. (pg.’s 596-600) 2. How did the new scientific theory and discoveries alter the concept of God and religion? Did science, in fact, come to dictate humanity's concept of God? God and religion was not affected tremendously, but followers of God and religion began to question their faith. Take Christianity for example. If Newtons law was correct, and the Sun is the center of the universe with the Earth is moving, then would what Joshua said in ancient times about the Earth not moving, and the Sun moving be a lie? These were the questions people began to ask. However, some might have dropped their faith, but science did not take over in my opinion. (pg.’s 595-597) 3. What were the scientific and religious implications of Copernicus's theory? Copernicus’s theory stated that the Earth had motion, and was revolving around the motionless sun, which was at the center of the universe. This was the scientific implication that Copernicus directly made. His indirect religious implication was that Joshua was wrong when he said that the Earth is motionless and the Sun moves. Once he contradicted the church and Joshua, his ideas were destroyed. (pg.’s 596-597) 4. Discuss the origins and momentum of the scientific revolution in terms of (a) its own "internal logic" and (b) external and nonscientific causes. A major factor to the scientific revolution was the medieval intellectual life and universities since they produced professors, doctors, lawyers, and church leaders that the society needed. Another “internal logic” factor was math. Since many only knew rudimentary
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This note was uploaded on 08/01/2011 for the course ENGLISH 1B taught by Professor Pugh during the Winter '08 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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Study_Guide_18[1] - Chapter 18: Toward a New World View...

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