Study_Guide_24[1] - Chapter 24: Life in the Emerging Urban...

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Chapter 24: Life in the Emerging Urban Society Review Questions 1. To what extent was industrialization responsible for the deplorable conditions of the cities in the early nineteenth century? Clearly deplorable urban conditions did not originate with the Industrial Revolution. What the Industrial Revolution did was reveal those conditions more nakedly than before. The steam engine freed industrialists from dependence on the energy of fast- flowing streams, so that people had every incentive to build new factories in urban areas. Cities had better shipping facilities, for better supplies of coal and raw material. Therefore, as industry and the industrialization of cities grew in Europe, so did the rapid expansion of already overcrowded and unhealthy cities. Industrialization was therefore responsible for most of the conditions Europe succeeded to. (pg.’s 789-791) 2. Who was Edwin Chadwick? What role did he play in the public health movement? One of the most famous cleanliest reformers was Edwin Chadwick. He was one of the commissioners charged with the administration of relief to paupers, under Britain’s revised Poor Law of 1834. Applying the principles of Jeremy Bentham, which stated that public problems ought to be dealt with a rational, scientific basis, Chadwick was convinced that death and disease were the causes of poverty simple because the sick workers were unemployed and poor workers. His “sanitary idea” was that disease could be prevented by cleaning up the urban environment. The role he played in the public health movement was that he developed the miasmatic theory, which stated that smells cause disease. (pg. 792) 3. What was the miasmatic theory of disease? How did it retard progress? Early reformers such as Edwin Chadwick were seriously handicapped by the prevailing miasmatic theory of disease—the belief that people contract disease when they breathe the bad odors of decay and putrefying excrement—in short, the theory that smells cause disease. The miasmatic theory was a reasonably deduction from empirical observations: cleaning up filth did produce laudable results. It slowed progress by opening new ideas of disease to people, but was rejected when doctors proved that the contagion was spread through filth, and not caused by it. (pg. 792) 4. What contributions did Pasteur, Koch, and Lister make to life in urban Europe? The breakthrough in disease was the germ theory of disease by Louis Pasteur, a French chemist who began to study fermentation at the request of brewers. He discovered that you could kill the bacteria of a beverage by heating or pasteurizing it. The breathtaking implication was that specific diseases were caused by specific living organisms—germs— and that those organisms could be controlled in people as well as in beer, wine, and milk. Robert Koch was a German physician. He became famous for the discovery anthrax bacillus, tuberculosis bacillus, and cholera, along with his postulates. In addition, Koch and
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This note was uploaded on 08/01/2011 for the course ENGLISH 1B taught by Professor Pugh during the Winter '08 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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Study_Guide_24[1] - Chapter 24: Life in the Emerging Urban...

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