Study_Guide_26[1] - Chapter 26: The West and the World...

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Chapter 26: The West and the World Review Questions 1. How large was the income gap between industrializing and non- industrializing regions? What was the cause of this gap? The ultimate significance if the Industrial Revolution was that it allowed those regions of the world that industrialized in the nineteenth century to increase their wealth and power enormously in comparison to those that did not. As a result, a gap between the industrializing regions and the non-industrializing ones opened up and grew steadily throughout the nineteenth century. Moreover, this pattern of uneven global development became institutionalized, or built into the structure of the world economy. Thus, we evolved a “lopsided world,” a world of rich lands and poor. (pg.’s 857-858) 2. What factors speeded up the intercontinental trade in the late nineteenth century? Where did most of the foreign investments in this period go? The technological breakthroughs of the Industrial Revolution allowed Britain to manufacture cotton textiles, iron, and other goods more cheaply and to far outstrip domestic demand for such products. The growth of trade was facilitated by the conquest of distance. This was achieved through the construction of railroads. Wherever railroads were built, they drastically reduced transportation costs, opened new economic opportunities, and called for new skills and attitudes in trade. Another factor to help trade was the power of steam. It revolutionized transportation by sea as well as land. The revolution in land and sea transportation helped European pioneers open up vast new territories and produce agricultural products. The majority of the foreign investments of the period went to other European countries, the United States and Canada, Australia and New Zealand, and Latin America. (pg.’s 858-860)d 3. What were the motives of both the British merchants and the Chinese government in the opium wars of 1839-1842 and 1856-1860? British merchants in the opium wars wanted to sell the drug and make profit off the Chinese. By 1836, the aggressive goal of the British merchants was an independent British colony in China and “safe and unrestricted liberty” in trade. The Chinese on the other hand wanted the selling and buying of the drug between Britain and China to stop. This was because the Chinese were wasting barrels of money on an illegal drug that was being imported into the country. They also wanted it to end since the empire was being stripped of its silver to pay for the opium. (pg.’s 861-862) 4. What were some of the differences in migration patterns among the various European states? Why was migration from Italy so heavy? The migration patterns among the various states were different because different states needed or did not need people. Migrants were an asset to the countries they were going to.
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Study_Guide_26[1] - Chapter 26: The West and the World...

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