Study_Guide_28 - Chapter 28: The Age of Anxiety Review...

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Chapter 28: The Age of Anxiety Review Questions 1. Describe why and how Nietzsche, Bergson, and Sorel began the revolt against the idea of progress and the general faith in the rational human mind. How did Wittgenstein add to this belief? Nietzsche revolted by saying that the West had overemphasized rationality and stifled the passion and animal instinct that drive human activity and true creativity. Sorel revolted by frankly characterizing Marxian socialism in an inspiring but un-provable religion rather than a rational scientific truth. Bergson revolted by saying that a religious experience or a mystical poem was often more accessible to human comprehension than a scientific or a mathematical equation. Wittgenstein added to this belief by bringing logical empiricism to them. (pg. 929) 2. What does Sartre’s statement that “man is condemned to be free” mean? How is this thought connected to the existential belief that man must seek to define himself? Existentialists did recognize that human beings, unless the kill themselves, must act. Indeed, in the words of Sartre, “man is condemned to be free.” There is a possibility indeed, the necessity-of giving meaning to life through actions, of deigning oneself through choices. To do so individuals become “engaged” and choose their own actions courageously, and consistently and in full awareness of their inescapable responsibility for their own behavior. In the end, existentialists argued, human beings can overcome life’s absurdity. (pg. 930) 3. What impact did the loss of faith in reason and progress have on the twentieth-century Christian thought? The loss of faith in human reason and in continual progress also led to a renewed interest in the Christian view of the world. The loss of faith urged Christian and Protestant theologians to reevaluate the Bible and fix contradictions between the Bible and the science. Christianity and religion in general had been on the defensive in intellectual circles since the Enlightenment. (pg. 930) 4. Define quanta and explain its implications for the definition of matter and energy. Building on work in radiation, German physicist Max Planck showed in 1900 that subatomic energy is emitted in uneven little spurts, which Planck called “quanta,” and not in a steady stream, as previously believed. Planck’s discovery called into question the old sharp distinction between matter and energy; the implication was that matter and energy might be different forms of the same thing. The old view of atoms as the stable, basic building blocks of nature, with a different kind of unbreakable atom for each of the ninety-two chemical elements, was badly shaken. (pg. 932) 5. Define and discuss the relationship among the id, ego, and superego.
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This note was uploaded on 08/01/2011 for the course ENGLISH 1B taught by Professor Pugh during the Winter '08 term at Berkeley.

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Study_Guide_28 - Chapter 28: The Age of Anxiety Review...

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