Study_Guide_29 - Chapter 29: Dictatorships and the Second...

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Review Questions 1. Describe conservative authoritarianism-as a theory, and its character in Poland, Hungary, Yugoslavia, and Portugal. Conservative authoritarianism was a traditional form of antidemocratic government in European history. The leaders of such a government tried to prevent major changes that would undermine the existing social order. To do so, they relied on obedient bureaucracies, vigilant police departments, and trustworthy armies. Authoritarian regimes were also strongly hierarchal. In Poland, the theory was clearly independent and democratic government was overturned. In Hungary, communism was crushed by the theory, and it remained nationalistic and conservative. In Yugoslavia, the theory allowed it to economically and socially advance. In Portugal, the theory allowed a poor and unstable country get a strong dictatorship. (pg.’s 957-958) 2. What are the characteristics of modern totalitarianism? How does it differ from conservative authoritarianism? The concept of totalitarianism emerged in the 1920s and the 1930s, although it is frequently and mistakenly seen as developing after 1945 as an anti-soviet propaganda during the Cold War. Early writers believed that modern totalitarianism burst on the scene with the revolutionary war effort of 1914 to 1918. The concept of totalitarianism though was to describe modern regimes in which the state regulated nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. Conservative authoritarianism was a traditional form of antidemocratic government in European history. The leaders of such a government tried to prevent major changes that would undermine the existing social order. To do so, they relied on obedient bureaucracies, vigilant police departments, and trustworthy armies. Authoritarian regimes were also strongly hierarchal. It differs in the sense that totalitarian leaders wanted every little aspect of their cities controlled by them. Authoritarian leaders wanted to only control major changes that would affect the balance of the city. (pg.’s 958-959) 3. What was the purpose of Lenin’s New Economic Policy? The purpose of Lenin’s New Economic Policy was to reestablish the limited economic freedom in an attempt to rebuild agriculture and industry. With the NEP, Lenin substituted a grain tax on the country’s peasant producers, who were permitted to sell their surpluses in free markets. He also encouraged peasants to buy from private traders and small handicraft manufacturers who were going out of business. This allowed for heavy industry, railroads, and banks to remain wholly nationalized. The NEP was shrewd and successful both economically and politically. (pg. 961) 4. How successful was Stalin’s program of five-year plans for the industrialization of Soviet Russia? What were its strengths and weaknesses? The five-year plans were a series of nation-wide centralized exercises in rapid
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Study_Guide_29 - Chapter 29: Dictatorships and the Second...

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