Study_Guide_30[1] - Chapter 30: Cold War Conflicts and...

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Chapter 30: Cold War Conflicts and Social Transformations, 1945-1985 Review Questions 1. Describe the dispute between the United States and Russia at the end of World War Two. How and why did it escalate into a cold war? The dispute between the two nations came from a long avoided discussion about Stalin’s war aims and the shape of the eventual peace settlement. The USA and the Soviet Union had different views on how to treat and deal with Germany. Their war disputes escalated into the Cold War because both countries wanted to reform and reestablish Germany. It was also because after Roosevelt had died, Truman of America asked free elections to be held in Eastern Europe, which of course Stalin refused. This led to the Cold War. (pg.’s 993-994) 2. Why were the Teheran and Yalta conferences important in shaping the map of postwar Europe? The conferences were important because they showed in what direction the war was heading. At the Teheran conference, the allies reconfirmed their decimation of Germany and their battle plans of destroying it. This showed how after the war, Germany’s size would be reduced three-fold. At the Yalta conference, the allies were in full force of their frontal attacks and were decimating Germany and its neighbors. This showed that the post war life in Europe would be low, and would have its great downfalls. (pg. 994) 3. What are the sources of the Soviet Union’s paranoia about Germany and vice versa? Stalin, who had lived through two enormously destructive German invasions, wanted absolute military security from Germany and its potential Eastern allies, once and for all. Stalin, suspicious by nature, believed that only communist states could be truly dependable allies, and he realized that free elections would result in independent and possibly hostile governments on his western border. Moreover, by the middle of 1945, there was no way short of war that the United States could determine political developments in Eastern Europe, and war as out of the question. Stalin was bound to have his way. (pg. 994) 4. How did Europe accomplish economic recovery after the war? What factors contributed to its growth? Europe recovered by using the help of socialists and communists, who were active in the resistance against Hitler, and emerged from it with increased power and prestige. The provided fresh leadership and pushed for social change and economic reform with considerable success. All across Europe social reform complemented political transformation, creating solid foundations for a great European renaissance. The United States also supplied strong and creative leadership, providing Western Europe with both massive economic aid and ongoing military protection. Thus, the USA assumed its international responsibilities after the Second World War, exercising leadership it had shunned after 1919. (pg. 997) 5. Which approach toward European unity was most successful, the political or the economic? Why? The Economic approach was the most successful in European Unity. It was because in 1950, Robert Schuman called for a special
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organization to control and integrate all European steel and coal production. This
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This note was uploaded on 08/01/2011 for the course ENGLISH 1B taught by Professor Pugh during the Winter '08 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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Study_Guide_30[1] - Chapter 30: Cold War Conflicts and...

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