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Study_Guide_31[1] - Chapter 31 Revolution Reunification and...

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Chapter 31: Revolution, Reunification, and Rebuilding: 1985 to the Present Review Questions 1. What is meant by the re-Stalinization of the Soviet bloc and the Soviet Union? Give examples. The re-Stalinization of the Soviet bloc meant that dictatorship was collective rather than personal, and coercion replaced uncontrolled terror. The strength of the government was also expressed in the re- Stalinization of culture and art. One example of the re-Stalinization was that before 1968, when people protested they were arrested, but in the 1970’s they were severely punished with sophisticatedly cunning methods. (pg. 1032) 2. Discuss the Solidarity movement in Poland in terms of origins, objectives, and outcome. What is meant by the claim that it was a “self-limiting” revolution? Led by feisty Lenin Shipyards electrician and devout Catholic Lech Walesa, the workers of Poland proceeded to organize their free and democratic trade union. This came to be known as the “Solidarity.” Solidarity’s leaders had tremendous well-organized support, and the ever-present threat of calling a nationwide strike gave them real power in on-going negotiations with the Communist bosses. Thus, the Solidarity revolution remained a “self-limiting revolution” aimed at defending the cultural and trade union freedoms won in the Gdansk Agreement, and it refused to use force to challenge directly the Communist monopoly of political power. Its outcome was that it showed the desire of the Europeans to have greater political liberty. (pg.’s 1034-1035) 3. What were the motives and the methods of Gorbachev? Why did he topple from power? Gorbachev believed in communism, but he knew it was failing to keep up with Western capitalism and technology. Thus, Gorbachev wanted to save the Soviet Union by introducing reforms. He also wanted to improve conditions for ordinary citizens. In his first year of power, he attacked corruption and incompetence in the bureaucracy, and he consolidated his power by packing the top level of the party with his supporters. He attacked alcoholism and drunkenness, which were deadly scourges of Soviet society. One of his elements of reform was democratization. He toppled from power when his plan to reform communism in all of Europe backfired, and a many number of peaceful revolutions occurred, causing him to lose power. (pg.’s 1036-1037) 4. Describe the revolutions of 1989 in Eastern Europe. Who were the participants and what were the results? The Revolutions of 1989, sometimes called the "Autumn of Nations," were a revolutionary wave that swept across Central and Eastern Europe in the autumn of 1989, ending in the overthrow of Soviet-style communist states within the space of a few months. The political upheaval began in Poland, and led to a surge of mostly peaceful revolutions in East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Bulgaria. Romania was the only Eastern-bloc country to violently overthrow its communist regime and execute its head of state. The Revolutions of 1989 greatly altered the balance of power in the
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