Conservation_Protected_Areas_and_the_Glo.pdf - Conservation Protected Areas and the Global Economic System Chapter 6 in Clement A Tisdell(1999

Conservation_Protected_Areas_and_the_Glo.pdf - Conservation...

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1 Conservation, Protected Areas and the Global Economic System Chapter 6 in Clement A. Tisdell (1999) BIODIVERSITY, CONSERVATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Principles and Practices with Asian Examples Edward Elgar: Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA [ISBN: 1 85898 735 0] Introductory Overview to Chapter 6 The previous chapter considered how extension of the commercial use of wildlife might effect the conservation of biodiversity. It was argued that such extension is not always effective in protecting wildlife and that even in cases where it may be considered to be effective, it is usually selective in its conservation of species and variety. Therefore, it is likely to be inadequate in conserving biodiversity and the webs of life so dear to Aldo Leopold (1996). Private property rights and commercialisation of wildlife do not provide a complete answer to the conservation of biodiversity; protected areas need to be provided to ensure a more acceptable level of biodiversity conservation. A related economic matter poses the question: what effects do the extension of the market system and the process of economic globalisation have on the conservation of nature, including its biodiversity? This is taken up in this chapter. The world is increasingly subject to economic globalisation. The global economic system is characterised by international specialisation in production, massive amounts of production and trade in goods and services, and the presence of international flows of finance, capital and technology. The system is bound together by the use of money and markets which rely on and foster self-interested production and the exchange of commodities. To some extent, the system is supplemented by international movements of labour and by official and unofficial aid. Major decision-makers in the global system include private traders and financiers, multinational corporations, national (centralised) governments and international public service bodies, such as the United Nations and its agencies. The system results in the replacement of ecosphere communities by biosphere communities, and depersonalises social, economic and environmental relationships. It places great pressure on natural resources, results in the increased loss of natural areas and of biodiversity and adds to global pollution. Its major consequence is the much greater externalisation of environmental effects of economic activity. The system is a threat to the
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