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ethnicity and race notes

ethnicity and race notes - Timeline of Iberian expansion in...

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Timeline of Iberian expansion in Americas 1492-1509: Spanish conduct several sea and land explorations of Caribbean region. 1500: Pedro Cabral claims Brazil for Portugal. 1510: First Permanent Spanish settlement established in modern day Columbia. 1519: Herman Cortes and allied Tohecs invade and conquer Aztec Empire. 1532: Francisco Pizzaro takes advantage of civil war to overrun Incan Empire 1542: Franciscan Priest de las casas accuses Spanish throne of destroying native cultures and peoples in the name of greed. The Columbian Exchange Term given to cross importation of new and old world plant and animals species from 1492-1650. Some were accidental (horses) others for profit (sugar cane) still others for European benefit (cattle). Credited with triggering population explosion in Europe and influenced Industrial Revolution. Profoundly affected North American ecosystem. From Europe to America Bees, cats, cattle, sheep, chicken, goats, geese, horses, rabbits, pigs Almonds, apples, apricots From America to Europe Alpaca, guinea pigs, turkeys Avocado, cashews, chili peppers, cocoa, cotton papaya, peanut, pecan, pineapple, potato, pumpkin, rubber, strawberries Would trigger massive population expansion in Europe from 17 th century until 19 th centuries The Real Conqueror: Disease
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European diseases introduced by explorers and conquistadors: cholera, typhus, smallpox, bubonic plague, typhoid, measles, chicken pox, malaria Indigenous populations had no resistance to diseases. Estimates of population loss range from 50-80% in century following first contact. Atlantic Slave Trade (1502-1860s) 1452:pope Nicholas V issues Bull approving enslavement of “unbelievers” by Christians. 1501: First African Slaves brought into Hispaniola. Introduced to provide workers for plantations and mines. Replaced decimated native workforce. Primary source of captives West Africa. Often sold by Africans or Arabs. Main transformers English and Dutch Est. 9-12 million forcibly transported along “triangle route” of Europe/ Africa/ Americas est. 1-2 million perished during “middle passage” Impact of Europeans on Americas Pre-Columbian central and south American indigenous cultures largely shattered. Replaced by hybrid culture of native, European and African origins. Introduction of unfamiliar diseases decimated native populations. Survivors left socially and culturally weakened and vulnerable. Importation of horses greatly enhance mobility of western tribes, while introduction of rice, indigo, sugar cane and cotton fuel economic growth and slave trade. Passage of native gold silver through Spain to North European banks sustain protestant reformation and fuel Industrial Revolution. Introduction of American food crops radically affect European diets and trigger population growth and calls for social/ political reform.
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