Outline_Chapter_04 - Chapter 4 Prokaryotic Profiles: The...

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Chapter 4 Prokaryotic Profiles: The Bacteria and Archaea Chapter Outline Chapter Introduction A. Distinguish a prokaryotic cell from a eukaryotic cell by: 1. The way its DNA is packaged 2. Makeup of its cell wall 3. Its internal structures 4.1. Prokaryotic Form and Function A. All bacterial cells have a cell membrane, ribosomes, and one (or more) chromosomes; majority have a cell wall. B. The structure of a generalized prokaryotic cell 1. Primarily refers to bacteria 4.2. External Structure A. Appendages: Cell extensions 1. Flagella - bacterial propellers a. Flagella confer motility i. Three parts: filament, hook, and sheath ii. Monotrichous, lophotrichous, amphitrichous, peritrichous b. Fine points of flagellar function i. Chemotaxis ii. Runs and tumbles 3. Periplasmic flagella a. Internal flagella (axial filaments) b. Found in spirochetes 4. Appendages for attachment and mating a. Fimbriae b. Sex pilus: Conjugation 5. The bacterial surface coating, or glycocalyx a. Slime layer and capsules b. Specialized functions of the glycocalyx i. Protection from white blood cells ii. Formation of biofilms 4.3. The Cell Envelope: The Boundary Layer of Bacteria A. Differences in cell envelope structure 1. Gram-negative versus gram-positive bacteria 2. Complete sandwich versus open-faced sandwich B. Structure of the cell wall 1. Peptidoglycan 2. Lysozyme and cell lysis 3. The gram-positive cell wall 4. The gram-negative cell wall 5. Non-typical cell walls
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Outline_Chapter_04 - Chapter 4 Prokaryotic Profiles: The...

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