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Outline_Chapter_06 - Chapter 6 An Introduction to the...

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Chapter 6 An Introduction to the Viruses Chapter Outline 6.1. The Search for the Elusive Viruses 6.2. The Position of Viruses in the Biological Spectrum A. Obligate intracellular parasites B. Infectious particles C. Active or inactive 6.3. The General Structure of Viruses A. Size range: ultramicroscopic 1. Most require an electron microscope to detect 2. Dwarfed by their host cells B. Viral components: Capsids, nucleic acids, and envelopes 1. Protein capsid a. Nucleocapsid: capsid surrounding viral nucleic acid b. Naked versus enveloped viruses 2. Another word for virus: virion 3. Viral capsid: The protective outer shell a. Made up of capsomers b. Helical capsids: Tobacco mosaic virus c. Icosahedron: Adenovirus d. Complex capsid 4. The viral envelope a. Spikes or peplomers 5. Functions of the viral capsid/envelope a. Plays a role in infection and host defense C. Nucleic Acids: At the Core of a Virus 1. Genome a. DNA or RNA but not both b. Single or double-stranded c. Positive sense or negative sense RNA d. Segmented RNA genomes 3. Viruses are genetic parasites D. Other Substances in the Virus Particle 1. Polymerases 2. Reverse transcriptase 6.4. How Viruses Are Classified and Named A. Classified based on: 1. DNA or RNA viruses 2. Enveloped or naked 3. Structure of capsid 4. Host cell specificity 5. Size B. Family name ends in -viridae C. Examples (Table 6.3): 1. Rhabdovirus: Bullet-shaped 2. Orthomyxoviruses: segmented RNA genome 6-1
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