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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 01 New World Beginnings I. The Shaping of North America I. Recorded history began 6,000 years ago. It was 500 years ago that Europeans set foot on the Americas to begin colonization II. The theory of Pangaea exists suggesting that thecontinents were once nestled together into one mega-continent. Theythen spread out as drifting islands. III. Geologic forces of continental plates created the Appalachian and Rocky Mountains. IV. The Great Ice Age thrust down over North America & scoured the present day American Midwest. II. Peopling the Americas I. The Land Bridge theory. As the Great Ice Age diminished, so did the glaciers over North America. The theory holds that a Land Bridge emergedlinking Asia & North America across what is now known as the BeringSea. People were said to have walked across the "bridge" before the sealevel rose and sealed it off; thus populating the Americas. The Land Bridge is said to have occurred an estimated 35,000 years ago. II. Many peoples Those groups that traversed the bridge spread across North, Central, and South America. Countless tribes emerged with an estimated 2,000 languages. Notably: Incas: Peru, with elaborate network of roads and bridges linking their empire. Mayas: Yucatan Peninsula, with their step pyramids. Aztecs: Mexico, with step pyramids and huge sacrifices of conquered peoples. III. The Earliest Americans I. Development of corn or maize around 5,000 B.C. in Mexico was revolutionary in that: Then, people didn't have to be hunter-gatherers, they could settle down and be farmers. This fact gave rise to towns and then cities. Corn arrived in the present day U.S. around 1,200 B.C. II. Pueblo Indians The Pueblos were the 1st American corn growers. They lived in adobe houses (dried mud) and pueblos ("villages" inSpanish). Pueblos are villages of cubicle shaped adobe houses, stackedone on top the other and often beneath cliffs. They had elaborate irrigation systems to draw water away from rivers to grown corn. III. Mound Builders These people built huge ceremonial and burial mounds and were located in the Ohio Valley. Cahokia, near East St. Louis today, held 40,000 people. IV. Eastern Indians Eastern Indians grew corn, beans, and squash in three sister farming: Corn grew in a stalk providing a trellis for beans, beans grew upthe stalk, squash's broad leaves kept the sun off the ground and thuskept the moisture in the soil....
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