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APUSH Chapter 12 - Chapter 12 The Second War for...

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Chapter 12 The Second War for Independence and the Upsurge of Nationalism I. On to Canada Over Land and Lakes I. Due to widespread disunity, the War of 1812 ranks as one of America’s worst fought wars. II. There was not a burning national anger, like there was after theChesapeake outrage; the regular army was very bad and scattered and hadold, senile generals, and the offensive strategy against Canada wasespecially poorly conceived. III. Had the Americans captured Montreal, everything west would havewilted like a tree after its trunk has been severed, but the Americansinstead focused a three- pronged attack that set out from Detroit,Niagara, and Lake Champlain, all of which were beaten back. IV. In contrast, the British and Canadians displayed enthusiasm earlyon in the war and captured the American fort of Michilimackinac, whichcommanded the upper Great Lakes area (the battle was led by BritishGeneral Isaac Brock). V. After more land invasions were hurled back in 1813, the Americans,led by Oliver Hazard Perry, built a fleet of green-timbered shipsmanned by inexperienced men, but still managed to capture a Britishfleet. His victory, coupled with General William Henry Harrison’sdefeat of the British during the Battle of the Thames, helped bringmore enthusiasm and increased morale for the war. VI. In 1814, 10,000 British troops prepared for a crushing blow to theAmericans along the Lake Champlain route, but on September 11, 1814,Capt. Thomas MacDonough challenged the British and snatched victoryfrom the fangs of defeat and forced the British to retreat. II. Washington Burned and New Orleans Defended I. In August 1814, British troops landed in the Chesapeake Bay area,dispersed 6,000 panicked Americans at Bladensburg, and proceeded toenter Washington D.C. and burn most of the buildings there.
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II. At Baltimore, another British fleet arrived but was beaten back bythe privateer defenders of Fort McHenry, where Francis Scott Key wrote“The Star Spangled Banner.” III. Another British army menaced the entire Mississippi Valley andthreatened New Orleans, and Andrew Jackson, fresh off his slaughter ofthe Creek Indians at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, led a hodgepodgeforce of 7,000 sailors, regulars, pirates, and Frenchmen, entrenchingthem and helping them defeat 8,000 overconfident British that hadlaunched a frontal attack in the Battle of New Orleans. IV. The news of this British defeat reached Washington early in February 1815, and two weeks later came news of peace from Britain. V. Ignorant citizens simply assumed that the British, having beenbeaten by Jackson, finally wanted peace, lest they get beaten again bythe “awesome” Americans. VI. During the war, the American navy had oddly done much better thanthe army, since the sailors were angry over British impressment of U.S.sailors.
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