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APUSH Chapter 14 - Chapter 14 Forging the National Economy...

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Chapter 14 Forging the National Economy I. The Westward Movement I. The U.S. marched quickly toward the West which proved to be very hard with disease and loneliness. II. Frontier people were individualistic, superstitious and ill-informed of current matters. II. Shaping the Western Landscape I. The westward movement molded the environment. Tobacco overuse had exhausted the land forcing settlers to move on, but “Kentucky bluegrass” thrived. Settlers trapped beavers, sea otters, and bison for fur to ship back East. II. The spirit of nationalism led to an appreciation of the American wilderness. Artist George Catlin pushed for national parks and later achieved it with Yellowstone in 1872. III. The March of the Millions I. In the mid-1800s, the population continued to double every 25 years. By 1860, the original 13 states now had become 33 states; theAmerican population was 4th in the world (behind Russia, France,Austria). Urban growth continued explosively. In 1790, only New York & Philadelphia had more than 20,000 people, but by 1860, 43 cities had. With growth came poor sanitation ‡ later, sewage systems and piped-in water came about. II. A high birthrate had accounted for population growth, but near 1850s, millions of Irish and German came. They came due to a surplus population in Europe, but not all came to the U.S. The appeal of the U.S. was for land, freedom from church, no aristocracy, 3 meat meals a day. Also, transoceanic steamships were used meaning travel time dropped to 12 days and it was safer. IV. The Emerald Isle Moves West I. The Irish potato famine in the mid-1840s led to the death of 2 million and saw many flee to the U.S.
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“Black Forties”—they mainly came to cities like Boston and especially New York (biggest Irish city). They were illiterate, discriminated against by older Americans, and received lowest-paying jobs (railroad-building). They were hated by Protestants because they’re Catholic. Americans hated the Irish (such as “NINA”—NoIrish Need Apply); the Irish hated competition with blacks for thelow-paying jobs. The Ancient Order of Hibernians was established to aid the Irish. Gradual property ownership came about, and their children earned education. The Irish were attracted to politics, and often filled police departments as officers. The politicians tried to appeal to the Irish by yelling at London (“Twisting the Lion’s Tail”). V. The German Forty-Eighters I. 1 million Germans poured in between 1830s-1860s because of crop failures and revolution/war of 1848. Liberals such as Carl Schurz contributed to the elevation of the U.S. political scene. They had more money than the Irish, so they bought land in West, especially in Wisconsin. Their votes were crucial, so they were wooed by U.S. politicians, yet they lacked potency because they were rather spread out.
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