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Unformatted text preview: AD-A172 865 DESIGN OF AIRCRAF (SELEED CPER(U) FOREIGN I C N~CDU~GH
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FTD-ID(RS)T-068 - FFOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION CD
to 0 DESIGN OF AIRCRAFT
A.A. Badyagin, S.M. Yeger, et al. DTIC
LaJ rn-j IIr T 1986 E FTD- ID(RS)T-0684-86 PARTIALLY EDITED MACHINE TRANSLATION
MICROFICHE NR: 22 September 1986 FTD-86-C-002216 DESIGN OF AIRCRAFT (Selected Chapters)
By: A.A. Badyagin, S.M. Yeger, et al. English pages:
Source: 699 Proyektirovaniye Samoletov, Publishing House
"Mashinostroyeniye", Mescow, 1972, pp. 1-164;
189-226; 420-515 Country of origin: USSR
This document is a machine translation.
Approved for public release; Distribution unlimited. THIS TRANSLATION IS A RENDITIO, OF THE ORIGINAL FOREIGN TEXT WITHOUT ANY ANALYTICAL OR
EDITORIAL COMMENT STATEMENTS OR THEORIES
ADVOCATED OR IMPLIED ARE THOSE OF THE SOURCE
AND DO NOT NECESSARILY REFLECT THE POSITION
OR OPINION OF THE FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION. FTD- ID(RS)T-0684-86 PREPARED BY:
FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION
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Incorrect word/phrase: Recommendation: ii ,. Table of Contents U.S. Board on Geographic Names Transliteration System ......................... v Preface ........................................................................ 3 Introduction .................................................................. 13 Part I. 30 General Design of Aircraft ........................................... Section I. -Kfheoretical Bases and Methods of the General Design of Aircraft 31 Chapter I. Short Historical Coverage of the Development of the Methods
of General Design and Criteria of Evaluation of Aircraft ...................... 31 Chapter II.
Fundamental and Relative Parameters of Aircraft, Equation
of Over-all Payload Ratios-- Effect of the Most Iportant Parameters of
Aircraft on its flight Characteristics ........
........................... 62 Chapter III.
Chapter IV. Methodology of the Optimum Designof an Aircraft ............... 124 -Approximation Methods of the Optimization of the Parameters of Aircraft ................................................................. 164 Chapter V. -Method of Gradients of Takeoff Weight and Its Application
,During the Design of Aircraft . ................................................. 205
Selection of Diagram, Power Plant and Basic Parameters of
Aircraft;> 235 Chapter VI. 235 'Airplane Design, Analysis and the Selection of Diagram ........... Chapter VII.
Chapter VIII. Basic Questions of the Design of the Power Plant of Aircraft
t Determination of the Basic Parameters of Aircraft Chapter IX. <Special Features of the Design of Passenger Aircraft
Chapter XI. .... .............. / 355
371 .tc............ Special Features of the Design COf Aerospace Aircraft ............. iii 293 ' 409 Chapter XIX. Design of Control Systems of Aircraft ........................ 494 References ................................................................. 696 Appendices Reee.
1- .656 ...... iv Block
a a BOARD ON GEOGRAPHIC NAMES TRANSLITERATION SYSTEM S. U. Transliteration Block A a A, a Pp S 6 B, b C C V, v T T
Y y B r ,g a
D, )7 E
* - 0* ye; W 3 , z M,u , iLu R Y, 17 ~KKr
7 E, e* X x zh h, Pp R, r C S, s T m T, t. y y U, u F f ¢ d Ye, X 4 x
ts u Ch,
sh q v
LU y -, ill Snch, src!s i:
Y, id A M, M 0 0 0, - r C) R 7, n Y f b mo Sn nf-al-y,
• e','v:nwrftten Transliteratic. Italic italic 3 i E, JO v Yu, yu Ya, ya #r e after vowels, and after -, i; e elsewhere.
as e 4r. Russian, transliterate as y! or RUSSIAN AND 0x:,LiSh TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS :,ssian English Russian English Russian Englh s n sn
csch arc sn
arc ch s ih_
cost_ 20Ss tt
csch Russian English rot curl lg log arc
csch GRAPHICS DISCLAIMER
All figures, graphics, tables, equations, etc. merged into
translation were extracted from the
v DOC = 86068401 PAGE 1 DESIGN OF AIRCRAFT. A. A.
Fomnin. Badyagin, S. M. Yeger, V. F. Mishin, F. 1. Sklyanskiy, N. A. DOC = 86068401 PAGE 2 In the book general/common bases and methods of designing
aircraft are presented, selection of diagram, power plant and
fundamental parameters of aircraft is examined.
includes the new materials: The second edition the methods of optimum design with the use of computer(s), the method of the gradients of takeoff weight for
the evaluation of the designing solutions and conversion of weight
characteristics, special feature of the desigS of aircraft with the
shortened and vertical takeoff, the passenger and aerospace aircraft. Sections, which relate taking into consideration of requirements
of economy and to design of main aggregates/units, are considerably
expanded and reworked. Applications/appendices to book are supplemented by
characteristics of aircraft engines, by standard combined weight and
enumeration of standard electronic equipment. Book is intended for students of aviation VUZ - Institute of Higher Education] and can be useful for engineers of aircraft
industry. DOC = 86068401 PAGE 3 Page 3.
Preface. In years, which passed from time of publication of textbook of N.
A. Fomin "design of aircraft" (1961), significantly grew level of
aviation science and technology. Appeared supersonic heavy aircraft, including passenger, usual became aircraft with the sweepback of wing
variable in flight, are introduced VTOL aircraft. Questions of design of aircraft within this time also obtained
substantial development. Extensively are used the method of optimum design, systems approach, use of computer(s), etc. Authors were aware in the facf that to write stable textbook
according to design of aircraft is extremely difficult. Each decade in the aviation now whole epochTherefore in this book in comparison
with the analogous previous textbooks considerable attention is given
to the fundamental systematic questions, which are immune to so quick
aging. At the same time the authors attempted to give material an information character, necessary for the diploma or pre-sketching
design of aircraft. Proposed textbook corresponds to program of course "esign of aircraft" for VUZ. Textbook consists of two sections - gFneral/common design of DOC = 86068401 PAGE 4 aircraft and design of its parts. In first section of book three parts. In the first part general/common bases and methods of designing the aircraft are
presented. Here the authors attempted in the intelligible form to show the evolution of the methods of general/common design, to present
the bases of the procedure of optimum design during the identification
of the parameters of aircraft. Is here given the procedure of the use of low increments in parameters and characteristics of aircraft, which
makes it possible comparatively simple to solve the great circle of
tasks. In second part selection of diagram, power plant and fundamental
parameters of aircraft is examined.
to the design of jet aircraft. Primary attention is here given Separate of chapter they are dedicate, to the special features of the general/common design of passenger
aircraft, aircraft with shortened and vertical takeoff and landing,
and also to the design of aerospace aircraft. In third part of first section layout and positioh of center of
gravity in aircraft is examined. In second section of textbook procedure of determining dimensions
and weight of wing, fuselage, tail assembly and landing gear is given.
Page 4. DOC = 86068401 PAGE 5 The general/common bases of the design of the aircraft components and
basis of the design of the system of its control here are examined. Chapters I, III, IV, V, VI, XIV are written by A. A. introduction, Chapters II, VIII, XII, XIII - by N. A. :X written by A. A.
E. Fomin, thapter is written by S. M. Yeger, thapters VII, XI - by V. F. hapters XVII, XIX - by F. I. Sklyanskiy. Badyagin and V. F. Fomin and N. K. Badyagin, Mishin, Chapters XVI and XVIII are Mishin, ehapter X is written by Liseytsev, ehapter XV - N. A. Fomin and V. Rotin. Appendices to textbook are written by A. A. Badyagin and V. F. Mishin. All concrete/specific information on design of aircraft and
selection of engine in period of preliminary development of aircraft
is published in open Soviet and foreign press. The authors with the appreciation will accept the observations according to the book, which
should be sent to an address: Moscow, B-66, ist Basmannyy lane, 3, publishing house "Machine building". DOC = 86068401 PAGE 6 Page 5.
The principal notations and contraction.
a - speed of sound, expenditures/consumptions per 1 ton- kilometer;
a - angle of attack of wing;
B - track of landing gear;
b - wing chord, the base of landing gear;
b 0 -root wing chord;
-- end wing chord; C -cost/value;
c- wing chord ratio at the root;
relative thickness at the wing tip;
: -aerodynamic coefficient of friction; coefficient of the aerodynamic pitching moment of wing profile; - - coefficient - thrust coefficient; - the specific hourly consumption of fuel/propellant of TRD L-. when c,=O [turbojet engine];
- the specific hourly consumption of fuel/propellant of TVD.
drag coefficient when
the coefficient of induced drag; - c,,- coefficient of wave impedance; c*- coefficient of profile drag;
derivative - c on the angle of attack a; diameter of fuselage; l7 f DOC = 86068401 PAGE 7 6 - angle of deflection of any control;
E - modulus of normal elasticity of material;
F - area of the washed by flow surface;
f - coefficient of friction, the safety factor;
G - weight of aircraft;
G- starting (takeoff) weight of aircraft; G,- the structural weight;
the over-all payload ratio of construction/design;
C-fuel load; -=-he over-all payload ratio of fuel/propellant; acceleration of gravity; weight of 1 m 2 the surface of g aggregate/unit;
H - flight altitude;
- sweep angle of wing (on quarter-chord);
z - sweep angle (on the leading wing edge);
K - lift-drag ratio;
k - coefficient;
I - flying range, length;
I - wingspan; X - wing aspect ratio;
- elongation/aspect ratio of any aircraft component; M - Mach number;
m - mass of flight vehicle; bypass ratio of TVRD;
,, 3 - the coefficients of the aerodynamic moment of aircraft (in the body coordinate system); DOC = 86068401 N 8 PAGE total power of engines. - Page 6.
N. starting power of engines (with V=0; H=0); - starting power of one engine; - --=No/G, - relative starting power;
Snrn, nrv... l:. rA. r.- load factors; number of engines; - quantity of passengers;
P total thrust of engines; - P0 the boost for launching of engines (with V=O; H=O); - the boost for launching of one engine; P- P 0 =Po/G0 - starting thrust-weight ratio;
specific thrust of power plant; - p - the specific wing load (p. - during the takeoff);
Q - hourly consumption of fuel/propellant;
q - velocity head, fuel consumption per kilometer;
p - mass air density; p,
.A=p/p°- - on the surface of sea; relative density of air; R - radius of the Earth, a radius turn/bank and so forth;
S - wing area (with the subfuselage partly);
- relative area of any aircraft component (referred to the wing
- wing taper;
efficiency of screw/propeller; '. T, K - temperature in the degrees Kelvin; DOC = 86068401 PAGE 9 T - the serviceable life of service; service life;
t - time, the temperature in the degrees Celsius;
6 - flight path angle to the horizon;
V - flight speed;
V.- orbital velocity; iV- the vertical velocity; X - aerodynamic drag;
position center of gravity of aircraft from the leading edge of
.,- the position of the focus of aircraft from the leading edge of
Y - aerodynamic lift.
VKS - aerospace of aircraft;
VPP - takeoff and landing strip;
GTD - gas turbine engine;
DTRD - turbofan engine;
ZhRD - liquid propellant rocket engine; LPS - flight personnel;
PVRD - ramjet engine;
PD - piston engine;
PRD - solid propellant rocket engine;
SA - standard atmosphere;
MAC - the mean aerodynamic chord;
SPS - supersonic passenger aircraft; &NWmo DOC = 86068401
TRD TRD turbofan engine; - turbojet engine; - TRDF 10 turboprop engine; - TVRD PAGE turbojet reheat engine; - EVM - electronic computer- UPS - boundary layer control; SVVP - aircraft of vertical take-off/landing; SUVP - aircraft of the shortened takeoff and landing. Indices.
v - wave; vzl. - takeoff (G. - takeoff weight);
v.o. - vertical tail assembly;
g - nacelle, load, throat;
c.o. - horizontal tail assembly;
dv - engine;
- interference; k - construction/design.
kach - rolling;
kom - commercial;
kr - wing; kreys
krit - cruising;
critical (value); m - midsection; 86068401 DOC
m.f. PAGE 11 midsection of fuselage; - 0 - initial value of value (or with the start);
n - load; n.y. - climb;
n.z. - navigational reserve;
upr - equipment and control; ob. omyv - the washed surface;
op tail assembly; - ost - stop; otr - breakaway; pas - passenger; pl gliding/planning; - p.n. payload; - pos - landing; pot - ceiling; prerv - interrupted; priv - civen; prob - landing run; -pust - empty; rasch - calculated;
reys - scheduled speed;
razb - takeoff/run-up;
raskh - expended;
control; rl- rch - knob/stick; s.g - the jettisonable load (in flight); II DOC I 86068401 sk - slip; sluzh - official;
sn - equipment; s.u. - power plant;
f fuselage; - sh - landing gear; ek - crew. PAGE 12 | ,, DOC = 86068401 PAGE 13 Page 8.
By design of aircraft usually is understood process of
development of technical materials (documentation), which determine
its technical flight characteristics, diagram and construction/design
of separate aggregates/units. Designation/purpose, operating conditions and technical flight
characteristics of projected/designed aircraft are determined by
client and are designed in the form of special requirements. Process of designing aircraft includes development of sketch and
worker of projects. Work on the refinement of requiremenLs for the aircraft and the possibility of their accomplishing, conducted to the
beginning of the development of preliminary design, is called
preliminary (pre-sketching) design. Sketch design consists in development of fundamental
characteristics of aircraft, its aerodynamic and design concepts,
which make it possible to judge advisability of further design. Into sketch design of aircraft it enters:
a) development of general views and layout sections/cuts;
b) reduced development of construction/design of most important DOC = 86068401 PAGE 14 parts (aggregates/units);
c) development of schematic diagrams, systems of equipment and
control, and also power plant;
d) calculation of force of gravity (weight) and centering;
e) aerodynamic design, stability analysis and controllability;
f) approximate computation to strength of most important aircraft
components. Simultaneously with development of preliminary design aircraft
scale model full size is constructed. For the examination of mock-up by client the board from different specialists is designated,
including crew. After conclusion of simulated board, which examines and confirms
preliminary design and aircraft scale model, final fitting of
construction with arrangement/position of control and equipment is
accomplished/realized, external enclosures are more precisely
formulated. Then conduct the more complete crews of aircraft on the strength, make and blow in the wind tunnels of model and according to
the results of testings of model in wind tunnel they more precisely
formulate aerodynamic design, stability analysis, spin and flutter.
On the basis of the results of purgings the airplane design is more
precisely formulated, the refined weight calculations are performed,
in this case weight limits (greatest values of the weight of the DOC = 86068401 PAGE 15 structure of aircraft and its parts, the permissible from the
considerations designs) are established/installed.
Working design - this is completing process of development of
technical documentation. Working project gives all necessary materials about technical flight data of future aircraft, about his
strength and reliability; it contains equipment specifications and all necessary information for deveroping technology of production of
aircraft. It must be noted that working the design of experimental aircraft usually concludes after that how the constructed sample of
aircraft it underwent tests. Into working design it enters:
a) development of assembly and detail drawings of
construction/design of separate assemblies (parts) of aircraft;
b) development of general view drawings of assemblies of
c) refinement of calculations for strength of all load-bearing
d) refinement of calculations of structural weight;
e) conducting research and experimental works, connected with
introduction of new constructions/designs, materials, etc. DOC = 86068401 PAGE 16 Development of working design of contemporary aircraft extremely
labor-consuming and complicated process, whose accomplishing under
force only to large collective of qualified technical-engineering
workers of different specialties. Laboratories of design bureaus and scientific research institutes
are occupied by experimental research works. The static and dynamic tests of construction/design for the strength, the service life, the
reliability of separate assemblies and systems are the final stage of
experimental research works usually. Hydraulic systems and other systems of equipment, system of control and recovery facilities
aircrew in the necessary order undergo bench tests under the
conditions, close to operating. Weight immense space of knowledge, necessary for designing
contemporary aircraft, was accumulated as a result of more than half
century labor of scientific different countries - aercdynamicists, of
material-strength engineers, metallurgists - and engineering practice
of design, construction and production of aircraft. Accumulation of knowledge and engineering experience contributed
to improvement of aircraft, which was being accompanied by change in
fundamental parameters and by improvement in its fundamental flight
characteristics. By fundamental aircraft performance usually are...
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